ඉන්දියා ජාතික ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම

(ඉන්දියානු ජාතික ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම වෙතින් යළි-යොමු කරන ලදි)

ටීම් ඉන්ඩියා සහ මෙන් ඉන් බ්ලූ ලෙසින්ද හැඳින්වෙන, ඉන්දියානු ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම, ජාත්‍යන්තර ක්‍රිකට් ක්‍රීඩාව තුල ඉන්දියාව නියෝජනය කරයි. ඉන්දියාවෙහි ක්‍රිකට් පාලක මණ්ඩලය (බීසීසීඅයි) වෙතින් පාලනය වන එය, ජාත්‍යන්තර ක්‍රිකට් කවුන්සිලයෙහි (අයිසීසී) ටෙස්ට්, එක් දින ජාත්‍යන්තර (එදිජා) සහ විස්සයි20 ජාත්‍යන්තර (වි20ජා) තත්ත්වයන් සහිත පූර්ණ සාමාජිකයෙකි.

ඉන්දියා ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම
Cricket India Crest.svg
ඉන්දියානු ක්‍රිකට් ලාංඡනය
පුද්ගලයෝ
නායකයා විරාත් කෝලි
පුහුණුකරු රවී ශාස්ත්‍රී
ඉතිහාසය
ටෙස්ට් තත්ත්වය අත්පත්කරගත්තේ 1932
ටෙස්ට් තරග
පළමුවන ටෙස්ට් තරගය එංගලන්තයට එරෙහිව
ලන්ඩන් හිදී
25–28 ජූනි 1932
එක්-දින ජාත්‍යන්තර
පළමුවන එදිජා එංගලන්තයට එරෙහිව
ලීඩ්ස් හිදී
13 ජූලි 1974
වි20 ජාතළුන්තර
පළමුවන වි20ජා දකුණු අප්‍රිකාවට එරෙහිව
ජොහැන්නස්බර්ග් හිදී
1 දෙසැම්බර් 2006

18වන සියවසෙහිදී යුරෝපියානු වෙළෙඳ නාවිකයන් විසින් ක්‍රිකට් ක්‍රීඩාව ඉන්දියාවට හඳුන්වා දෙමින් 1792 වසරෙහිදී ඉන්දියාවෙහි පළමු ක්‍රිකට් ක්‍රීඩා සමාජය කල්කටා නගරයෙහිදී පිහිටුවනු ලැබුවත්, ඉන්දියාවේ ජාතික ක්‍රිකට් කණ්ඩායම විසින් එහි පළමු ටෙස්ට් තරගය ලෝඩ්ස් ක්‍රීඩාංගණයෙහිදී ක්‍රීඩා කිරීම 1932 ජූනි 25 දින තෙක් පමාවී සිදුවූ අතර, ටෙස්ට් තත්ත්වය පිරිනැමුනු හයවන කණ්ඩායම එය විය. එය විසින් ජාත්‍යන්තර ක්‍රිකට් ක්‍රීඩාවෙහි නියුතු වූ පළමු වසර පනහ තුල, දුර්වල කණ්ඩායම් අතරින් එකක් බවට ඉන්දියාව සැලකුණේ එය ක්‍රීඩා කළ පළමු ටෙස්ට් තරග 196 අතරින් තරග 35 ක් පමණක් එය විසින් දිනා ගත් නිසාය. එහි පළමු ටෙස්ට් ජයග්‍රහණය සඳහා, 1932 වසරෙන් පසුව 1952 වසර දක්වාම, එනම් දළ වශයෙන් වසර 20 ක් පොරොත්තු වීමට ඉන්දියාවට සිදු විය. කෙසේවෙතත්, 1970 ගණන් වලදී සුනිල් ගවාස්කාර් සහ ගුන්ඩප්පා විශ්වනාත් වැනි පිතිකරුවන්, තුන්-ඉරියව් ක්‍රීඩක කපිල් දේව් සහ ඉන්දියානු දඟ පන්දු චතුරංගිකය වූ ඉරාපලි ප්‍රසන්නා, ශ්‍රීනිවාසරාඝවන් වෙන්කටරාඝවන්, භගවත් චන්ද්‍රසේකර් සහ බිෂන් සිං බේදි වැන්නන්ගේ සම්ප්‍රාප්තිය හා සමගම එය වඩාත් ශක්තිමත් කණ්ඩායමක් බවට පත් විය.

ඉතිහාසයසංස්කරණය

The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721.[1] In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans eventually invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877.[2] By 1912, the Parsis, Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year.[2] In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the England cricket team. Some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were greatly appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy – two major first-class tournaments in India. In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of the British Isles, but only played English county teams and not the England cricket team.[3]

India was invited into The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926, and made their debut as a Test playing nation in England in 1932, led by CK Nayudu, who was considered as the best Indian batsman at the time.[4] The one-off Test match between the two sides was played at Lord's in London. The team was not strong in their batting at this point and went on to lose by 158 runs.[5] In 1933, the first Test series in India was played between India and England with matches in Bombay, Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Madras (now Chennai). England won the series 2–0.[6] The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and '40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period. In the early 1940s, India didn't play any Test cricket due to the Second World War. The team's first series as an independent country was in late 1947 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles (a name given to the Australia national cricket team of that time). It was also the first Test series India played which was not against England. Australia won the five-match series 4–0, with Bradman tormenting the Indian bowling in his final Australian summer.[7] India subsequently played their first Test series at home not against England against the West Indies in 1948. West Indies won the 5-Test series 1–0.[8]

India recorded their first Test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Madras in 1952.[9] Later in the same year, they won their first Test series, which was against Pakistan.[10] They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides. On 24 August 1959, India lost by an innings in the Test to complete the only 5–0 whitewash ever inflicted by England. The next decade saw India's reputation develop as a team with a strong record at home. They won their first Test series against England at home in 1961–62, and also won a home series against New Zealand. They managed to draw home series against Pakistan and Australia, and another series against England. In this same period, India also won its first series outside the subcontinent, against New Zealand in 1967–68.

The key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartetBishen Bedi, E.A.S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan. This period also saw the emergence of two of India's best ever batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath. Indian pitches have had tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting line-ups. These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar. Gavaskar scored 774 runs in the West Indian series while Dilip Sardesai's 112 played a big part in their one Test win.

The advent of One Day International (ODI) cricket in 1971 created a new dimension in the cricket world. However, India was not considerably strong in ODIs at this point and batsmen such as the captain Gavaskar were known for their defence-based approaches to batting. India began as a weak team in ODIs and did not qualify for the second round in the first two editions of the Cricket World Cup. Gavaskar infamously blocked his way to 36 not out off 174 balls against England in the first World Cup in 1975, India scored just 132 for 3 and lost by 202 runs.

In contrast, India fielded a strong team in Test matches and were particularly strong at home where their combination of stylish batsman and beguiling spinners were seen at their best. India set a then Test record in the third Test against the West Indies at Port-of-Spain in 1976 when they chased 403 to win thanks to 112 from Viswanath. This West Indian defeat is considered to be a watershed in the history of their cricket because it led to captain Clive Lloyd dispensing with spin altogether and relying entirely on a four-man pace attack. In November 1976, the team established another record by scoring 524 for 9 declared against New Zealand at Kanpur without an individual scoring a century. There were six fifties, the highest being 70 by Mohinder Amarnath. The innings was the eighth instance in Test cricket where all eleven batsmen reached double figures.

During the 1980s, India developed a more attack-minded batting line-up with stroke makers such as the wristy Mohammed Azharuddin, Dilip Vengsarkar and all-rounders Kapil Dev and Ravi Shastri. India won the Cricket World Cup in 1983, defeating the favourites and two-time defending champions West Indies in the final, owing to a strong bowling performance. In spite of this, the team performed poorly in the Test arena, including 28 consecutive Test matches without a victory. In 1984, India won the Asia Cup and in 1985, won the World Championship of Cricket in Australia. Apart from this, India remained a weak team outside the Indian subcontinent. India's Test series victory in 1986 against England remained the last Test series win by India outside the subcontinent for the next 19 years. The 1980s saw Gavaskar and Kapil Dev (India's best all-rounder to date) at the pinnacle of their careers. Gavaskar made a Test record 34 centuries as he became the first man to reach the 10,000 run mark. Kapil Dev later became the highest wicket-taker in Test cricket with 434 wickets. The period was also marked by an unstable leadership, with Gavaskar and Kapil exchanging the captaincy several times.

The addition of Sachin Tendulkar and Anil Kumble to the national side in 1989 and 1990 further improved the team. The following year, Javagal Srinath, India's fastest bowler since Amar Singh made his debut. Despite this, during the 1990s, India did not win any of its 33 Tests outside the subcontinent while it won 17 out of its 30 Tests at home. After being eliminated by neighbours Sri Lanka on home soil at the 1996 Cricket World Cup semifinal, the team underwent a year of change as Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid, later to become captains of the team, made their debut in the same Test at Lord's. Tendulkar replaced Azharuddin as captain in late 1996, but after a personal and team form slump, Tendulkar relinquished the captaincy and Azharuddin was reinstated at the beginning of 1998. With the captaincy burden removed, Tendulkar was the world's leading run-scorer in both Tests and ODIs, as India enjoyed a home Test series win over Australia, the best ranked team in the world.

After failing to reach the semifinals at the 1999 Cricket World Cup, Tendulkar was again made captain, and had another poor run, losing 3–0 on a tour of Australia and then 2–0 at home to South Africa. Tendulkar resigned, vowing never to captain the team again. Ganguly was appointed the new captain and the team was further damaged in 2000 when former captain Azharuddin and fellow batsman Ajay Jadeja were implicated in a match-fixing scandal and given life and five years bans respectively. This period was described by the BBC as "the Indian cricket's worst hour". However, the new core – Tendulkar, Dravid, Kumble and Ganguly – swore not to let this happen to them again, and lead Indian cricket out of the dark times. And the first three put aside personal ambitions to let Ganguly lead them into a new era.[11]

Since 2000, the Indian team underwent major improvements with the appointment of John Wright as India's first ever foreign coach. India maintained their unbeaten home record against Australia in Test series after defeating them in 2001. The series was famous for the Kolkata Test match, in which India became only the third team in the history of Test cricket to win a Test match after following on. Australian captain Steve Waugh labelled India as the "Final Frontier" as a result of his side's inability to win a Test series in India.[12] Victory in 2001 against the Australians marked the beginning of a dream run for India under their captain Ganguly, winning Test matches in Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, West Indies and England. The England series is also known for India's highest ODI run-chase of 325 runs at Lord's which came in the Natwest ODI Series final against England. In the same year, India were joint-winners of the ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka, and then went to the 2003 Cricket World Cup in South Africa where they reached the final only to be beaten by Australia. The 2003–04 season also saw India play out a Test series in Australia where they drew 1–1 with the world champions, and then win a Test and ODI series in Pakistan.

At the end of the 2004 season, India suffered from lack of form and fitness from its older players. A defeat in a following home Test series against Australia was followed by an ODI home series defeat against Pakistan followed by a Test series levelled 1–1. Greg Chappell took over from John Wright as the coach of the Indian cricket team following the series, and his methods proved to be controversial during the beginning of his tenure. The tension resulted in a fallout between Chappell and Ganguly, resulting in Rahul Dravid being made captain. This triggered a revival in the team's fortunes, following the emergence of players like Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Suresh Raina, and the coming of age of players like Irfan Pathan and Yuvraj Singh. A thumping home series victory over Sri Lanka in 2005 and a drawn series with South Africa put India at second place in the ICC ODI rankings. Dravid, Tendulkar and Virender Sehwag were selected to play for the ICC World XI in the 2005 "SuperTest" against Australia. A convincing ODI series win in Pakistan in early 2006, following a loss in the Test series, gave India the world record of 17 successive ODI victories while batting second.[13] Towards the middle of 2006, however, a 4–1 series loss in the West Indies gave rise to a slump in India's ODI form, while they achieved a 1–0 victory in the Test series that followed, giving them their first Test series victory in the Caribbean since 1971. India's ODI form slumped further with a disappointing performance in the 2006 Champions Trophy and a drubbing in the ODI series in South Africa. This was followed yet again by an initial good performance in the Tests, giving India its first Test match win in South Africa, although they went on to lose the series 2–1. This Test series was marked by Ganguly's comeback to the Indian team.[14]

In December 2006, India played and won its first ever Twenty20 international in South Africa, becoming the most recent Test team to play Twenty20 cricket. The beginning of 2007 had seen a revival in the Indian team's ODI fortunes before the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Series victories against the West Indies and Sri Lanka, marked by the comeback of Ganguly, and strong form by Tendulkar, and the emergence of young players like Robin Uthappa saw many pundits to tip India as a real contender to win the 2007 Cricket World Cup. However, defeats to Bangladesh and Sri Lanka saw India fail to reach the second round.

After winning the Test series against England in August 2007, Dravid stepped down as the captain of the team following which Dhoni was made the captain of the Twenty20 and ODI team. In September 2007, India won the first-ever Twenty20 World Cup held in South Africa, beating Pakistan by 5 runs in the final. In 2007–08, they toured Australia where India lost the highly controversial home Test series 2–1, but managed to win the CB series the following month with a whitewash final of Australia.

In April 2009, India secured their first Test series win in New Zealand in 41 years. After beating Sri Lanka 2–0 in December 2009, India became the No. 1 Test team in the world. They retained the ranking by drawing series against South Africa and Sri Lanka. In October 2010, India whitewashed Australia 2–0 in the home test series, giving them back-to-back series wins against them. Later that year, India managed to draw the Test series in South Africa at 1–1.[15]

On 2 April 2011, India won the 2011 Cricket World Cup by defeating Sri Lanka in the final, thus becoming the third team after West Indies and Australia to win the World Cup twice, the previous win being in 1983. Gautam Gambhir and the skipper Dhoni led the way with 97 and 91* respectively.[16] India also became the first team to win the World Cup on home soil.

India were whitewashed 4–0 in away Test series by England in August 2011 due to which England replaced India as the No. 1 Test team in the rankings.[17] This series was followed by another 4–0 whitewash of India in January 2012 in Australia. The disastrous whitewashes saw the retirement of Dravid and VVS Laxman from Test cricket in 2012. Tendulkar retired in November 2013 after his 200th Test match. With Ganguly having retired in 2008, this period signalled the end of the fabled middle-order batting line-up Indian had for a decade. 2012 signalled a rough period for Indian cricket as they were beaten 2–1 by England at home in the Test series. This was the first Team India were beaten by England at home in the modern era. This was followed by a 2–1 loss in the ODI series against Pakistan, India's arch rivals, at home. India were then knocked out in the second round of the 2012 ICC World Twenty20. India also failed to qualify for the 2012 Asia Cup final which closed out a disappointing 2012 for the Indian cricket team. 2013 saw a resurgence in Indian cricket.

In early 2013, India returned the favour to Australia and whitewashed them 4–0 at home in a Test series. India then beat the Aussies 3–2 in the 7-match ODI series and won the one-off T20I. However, India lost heavily against New Zealand and South Africa away from home and led to heavy criticism of Indian cricketers for not being able to perform overseas. India defeated England in the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy final and Mahendra Singh Dhoni became the first captain in history to win the three major ICC trophies, namely- ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20 and ICC Champions Trophy. This was followed by a victory in the West Indies Triangular Series in 2013 consisting of India, West Indies and Sri Lanka. In 2014, India toured Bangladesh and England. Although they beat the former 2–0 in 3 One Day Internationals, Team India were beaten 3–1 in 5 Test matches by England. This series included a famous win for the Indian team in the first match of the series at Lord's. The Test series was followed by a 3–1 win for the Indians in a 5-match ODI series and a loss in a one-off T20, both against England.

India failed to reach the final of the Asia Cup yet again in 2014. In the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 hosted in Bangladesh, India narrowly missed out on another ICC trophy by losing to Sri Lanka in the final. This tournament saw the rise of Virat Kohli as one of the best limited overs batsmen in world cricket as he was adjudged the man of the series. India soon comprehensively beat Sri Lanka and West Indies in ODI series to cement their position at the top of the ODI rankings. India toured Australia towards the end of 2014 for a 4-match Test series, which is remembered for MS Dhoni's sudden retirement from Test cricket after the end of the second Test. Virat Kohli was appointed captain of Team India in Test matches but he was unable to turn the series around and India lost 2–0. Kohli's first series win as captain came away from home in a 3-match Test series vs Sri Lanka which signalled the beginning of an unbeaten Test series run for India.

2015 saw the beginning of India's dominance at home in Test matches under new captain Virat Kohli when they comprehensively beat South Africa. This series was the beginning of an unbeaten streak of 19 Test matches for India which was brought to an end by Australia in early 2017. This series also saw the emergence of Ravichandran Ashwin and Ravindra Jadeja as two of the best spinners and all rounders. They spun webs around touring batsmen, much like the spinning quartet of the 1970s. This was followed by limited overs victories over Australia and Sri Lanka away from home. India were knocked out of the 2015 World Cup in the semi-final stage, to eventual winners Australia. India began 2016 by winning the 2016 Asia Cup, remaining unbeaten throughout the tournament, beating Pakistan along the way. India were favourites to win the 2016 ICC World Twenty20 which was being held at home, but they lost in the semi final to eventual champions West Indies. Virat Kohli was again named man of the series.

In 2016, "The Grand Home Season" began for India, including series at home against New Zealand, England, Bangladesh and Australia. India whitewashed New Zealand to regain the number one ranking in Test cricket after almost 10 years. Before the series against England in November 2016, MS Dhoni resigned as captain of India in limited overs, thus handing the captaincy to Virat Kohli across all formats. India beat England across all three formats, with a notable 4–0 win in the Test series. This was followed by Test series wins against Bangladesh and Australia, which meant India reclaimed the Border Gavaskar Trophy. Ravichandran Ashwin became the fastest cricketer of all time to reach 250 wickets; he and Ravindra Jadeja occupied the top two spots in both the ICC Bowlers and All-Rounders rankings at the time. In the process, India became the third team (after South Africa and Australia) to have won their most recent Test series against all the other Test-playing nations. India hold an unbeaten streak of 8 consecutive Test series wins as of 19 August 2017.

India defeated Pakistan in their first game of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, winning by a convincing 124-run margin,[18] but lost their second game of the group against Sri Lanka by 7 wickets despite posting a total of 321.[19] In their final group game against South Africa, a must-win encounter, India won comfortably and sealed a spot in the semi-finals, against Bangladesh.[20] India comfortably won the match by 9 wickets, and faced arch-rivals Pakistan in the final, the first time they had met at this stage of a tournament since 2007.[21] In an anti-climax, considering India were the clear favourites, Pakistan defeated India comfortably by 180 runs in the final, outclassing them across all three departments.[22]

India beat the West Indies 3–1 in a 5-match ODI series in the Caribbean in July 2017,[23] but lost to the same opposition in a one-off T20I.[24] India then toured Sri Lanka, and comprehensively defeated them 3-0 in a three-match Test series, the first time India had whitewashed a team away from home in a Test series with at least three games.[25]

මුලාශ්‍රසංස්කරණය

  1. Downing, Clement (1737). William Foster. ed. A History of the Indian Wars. London. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Cricket and Politics in Colonial India". Ramachandra Guha. 1998. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 20 September 2006. 
  3. "India in British Isles, 1911". Cricket Archive. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 21 September 2006. 
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  10. "Beyond boundaries". Deccan Chronicle. 29 March 2011. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 1 April 2011. 
  11. "India cricket: Middle-order retirements are end of era". BBC News. 23 August 2012. 
  12. "Steve Waugh Column". Steve Waugh. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 21 September 2006. 
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  15. The series cricinfo
  16. Dhoni and Gambhir lead India to World Cup glory ESPNCricinfo. Retrieved 12 December 2011
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  19. Andrew Fidel Fernando (8 June 2017). "Sri Lanka complete highest successful chase in Champions Trophy history, beat India by 7 wickets". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 June 2017. 
  20. Siddharth Monga (11 June 2017). "Disciplined India run dysfunctional South Africa out". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 June 2017. 
  21. Siddharth Monga (15 June 2017). "Dominant India march into yet another final". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 16 June 2017. 
  22. Andrew Fidel Fernando (18 June 2017). "India hoodoo broken emphatically by Pakistan". ESPNcricinfo. 
  23. Siddharth Monga (6 July 2017). "Kohli, spinners seal 3–1 series win". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 7 July 2017. 
  24. Sidharth Monga (9 July 2017). "Lewis century powers Windies to 9-wicket win". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 20 July 2017. 
  25. Andrew Fernando (13 August 2017). "Ashwin, Shami lead India in 3-day rout, to complete whitewash". ESPNcricinfo. සම්ප්‍රවේශය 19 August 2017.