This template sets up a {{taxobox}}, a table setting out the Biological classification (taxonomy) for a group of living things with a choice of over 160 parameters. Although the implementation is complicated, it is relatively simple to use. For an example in practice, look at the edit page of "Killer whale" – [1]. Most parameters are optional, so if a particular entry is not relevant for your case, just leave it out. See "All parameters" for a complete list.

This guide has come out of WikiProject Tree of life.

| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_width        = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| image2             = 
| image2_width       = 
| image2_alt         = 
| image2_caption     = 
| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae (or...)
| divisio            = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
| range_map          = <!--optional map - also range_map2, 3 or 4 -->
| range_map_width    = 
| range_map_alt      = 
| range_map_caption  = 
| <!--or 115 other parameters-->

Colors are automatically assigned based on the table below.

Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Chromalveolata rgb(200,250,80)
Choanozoa rgb(245,215,255)
Rhizaria transparent; text-align:center; border: 2px solid red; error:colour
Excavata rgb(245,215,255)
Amoebozoa rgb(245,215,255)
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250)
Viruses rgb(250,250,190)
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Colours not produced by this template:
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

Quick start and examples

Asian Golden Cat
Orange cat sitting with head up and eyes almost closed.
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Animalia
වංශය: Chordata
වර්ගය: Mammalia
ගෝත්‍රය: Carnivora
කුලය: Felidae
ගණය: 'Catopuma'
විශේෂය: C. temminckii
ද්වීපද නාමය
Catopuma temminckii
(Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Animal]]ia
| phylum             = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 

Animal higher taxon
Underwater humpback whale diving, with front flipper extended.
Humpback Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Animalia
වංශය: Chordata
වර්ගය: Mammalia
ගෝත්‍රය: Cetacea
උපගෝත්‍රය: Mysticeti
කුලය: Balaenopteridae
Gray, 1864


| regnum            = [[Animal]]ia
| phylum            = 
| classis           = 
| ordo              = 
| familia           = 
| genus             = 
| genus_authority   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 

The majority of plants are angiosperms ("flowering plants"). Wikipedia:Wikiproject Plants consensus is to use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG III classification system for angiosperms. The APG III system does not have formally named divisions or classes, but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named clades. The hierarchy of informally named clades is presented by using parameters such as |unranked_divisio= in place of formal rank parameters. Articles on non-flowering plants (e.g. conifers, ferns) should continue to use formal divisions and classes in the Taxobox.

Flowering plant species
Magnolia virginiana
White flower surrounded by long green leaves.
Magnolia virginiana
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
ගෝත්‍රය: Magnoliales
කුලය: Magnoliaceae
ගණය: 'Magnolia'
විශේෂය: M. virginiana
ද්වීපද නාමය
Magnolia virginiana
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   =
| unranked_ordo      =
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 

Flowering plant higher taxon
Cluster of oak leaves and acorns.
Foliage and acorns of the Pedunculate Oak, Quercus robur
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
ගෝත්‍රය: Fagales
කුලය: Fagaceae
ගණය: ''Quercus''

See List of Quercus species.

| image             = 
| image_alt         = 
| image_caption     = 
| regnum            = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio  = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis  =
| unranked_ordo     =
| ordo              = 
| familia           = 
| genus             = 
| genus_authority   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 

Provided under this parameter should be the single most common vernacular name when one is in widespread use, or a single current scientific name otherwise.

The name parameter should not be used to incorporate more than one name. It is only a header and not meant to be an inclusive "names" field. One will suffice. Please assess the relevant literature in deciding which.

The color is automatically assigned based on the entry for |regnum=, |virus_group=. |unranked_phylum= or |phylum=, in that order; there is no need to specify it manually. If you do, be sure to use rgb or hsl format; see examples below.

Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Chromalveolata rgb(200,250,80)
Choanozoa rgb(245,215,255)
Rhizaria transparent; text-align:center; border: 2px solid red; error:colour
Excavata rgb(245,215,255)
Amoebozoa rgb(245,215,255)
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250)
Viruses rgb(250,250,190)
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Colours not produced by this template:
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

The eukaryote box uses the color "rgb(224, 208, 176)", but since it is split completely into kingdoms other eukaryote groups should not.

As noted above, the classification section includes some or all of the following:

| regnum  = 
| phylum  = 
| classis = 
| ordo    = 
| familia = 
| genus   = 
| species = 

Each entry corresponds to a containing group, except for the last, which should be the group under consideration. Note the entries use the Latin names for the ranks, to make porting between Wikipedias easier. Thus the above correspond to the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

Red wood ant
විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Animalia
වංශය: Arthropoda
වර්ගය: Insecta
ගෝත්‍රය: Hymenoptera
කුලය: Formicidae
උපකුලය: Formicinae
Tribe: Formicini
ගණය: 'Formica'
විශේෂය: F. rufa
ද්වීපද නාමය
Formica rufa
Linnaeus, 1761

Taxoboxes should include all major ranks above the taxon described in the article, plus minor ranks that are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article, or which are discussed in the article. Other minor ranks should be omitted.

For example, in the taxobox for the genus Formica, it's appropriate to include entries for tribe and subfamily, since those are an aid to understanding how Formica relates to other genera in the family Formicidae. But it wouldn't be appropriate to include the superorder Endopterygota, since all genera of ants are in that superorder; it isn't particularly interesting at this level.

Another example is the subfamily Bambusoideae, the bamboos. This subfamily probably should be mentioned in the taxobox of every bamboo species, since it is a major grouping in this context, despite its minor rank.

Minor ranks are included in the same way as major ranks, for example:

| classis    = ...
| subclassis = ...
| superordo  = ...
| ordo       = ...

Note that species and subspecies should be given using the abbreviated forms of their name — e.g. H. sapiens, H. s. sapiens. The epithets should not be given by themselves. The full form of the species or subspecies name is given in the binomial or trinomial section.

See #All parameters for a complete list.

Classification status

With the |classification_status= parameter, it is possible to introduce extra text within parentheses after "Scientific classification". For example,


will produce "Scientific classification (disputed)". See Veratalpa for a current example where this parameter is used. This parameter should only be used when the "Scientific classification" text would be misleading without it.

Divisions and sections

These ranks have different meanings in zoology and botany.

In botany:

  • Use divisio for division (a rank above class and below kingdom)
  • Use sectio for section (a rank above species and below genus)

Note: Certain very large genera, e.g. Rhododendron include subsections

In zoology:

  • Use zoodivisio for division (a rank above family and below order)
  • Use zoosectio for section (a rank above family and below order)

For each major taxon from family to phylum, you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked_X appears above rank X, for example unranked_superfamilia appears above family and superfamily and below order, suborder, infraorder, etc.:

| ordo                  = 
| unranked_superfamilia = 
| familia               = 

For animals and non-flowering plants, use unranked taxa sparingly. The need to include unranked taxa generally indicates that you are following phylogenetic nomenclature. It is usually better to abbreviate the classification to the major ranks and then discuss the classification in more detail in the article.

Unranked taxa of flowering plants

Flowering plants (angiosperms) make frequent use of unranked taxa. The APG III system of classification used for flowering plants on Wikipedia does not have formally named ranks above order - e.g. divisions, classes, subclasses - but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named and unranked clades. For flowering plants the taxobox should include |unranked_divisio=Angiosperms in place of |divisio=, |unranked_classis= in place of |classis=, and possibly also |unranked_subclassis= in place of |subclassis=. Flowering plant taxoboxes may often include three to four informal hierarchical groups above the rank of order, making the use of |unranked_ordo= necessary, which sorts itself just above |ordo= where a formally named order is displayed. The unranked parameters only include ranks in their parameter names, such as "unranked_divisio" to allow the editor to place content hierarchically; no approximation of rank is intended by the use of these parameter names. For flowering plant articles using the APG III system of classification, the regular parameters including |divisio=, |classis=, and |subclassis= should not be used or it will display between these unranked APG III clades.

To comply with #Classification above and its advice on the inclusion of major ranks, the following are considered major ranks in APG III and currently included in the appropriate flowering plant taxoboxes:

Note: The rosids contain two clades, the fabids (also known as eurosids I) and malvids (also known as eurosids II), and the asterids contain two further clades, the lamiids (euasterids I) and campanulids (euasterids II). These are considered to be minor ranks and are only to be displayed on the articles on orders or families they immediately contain.

A taxobox for a flowering plant will thus generally include the following parameters:

| regnum             = [[Plant]]ae
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   =
| unranked_ordo      =
| ordo               = 

Viruses follow a slightly different system. They are not placed in taxa above the rank of order, and instead are treated in seven groups based on the type of nucleic acid they contain, referred to by the Roman numerals I to VII. These can be included in the taxobox using the virus_group argument. This also changes the link from scientific to virus classification, so it should not appear on boxes for non-viruses, even if it is left blank.

| virus_group = IV

Bold/italic markup


Italicization must be done manually in all parameters. If the entry for genus or species (with manually added italics) matches the page title,[note 1] then the name of the taxobox and the title of the page will be italicized. Note that if the |name= parameter is used the page title will not be automatically italicized. The taxobox's name will be set to exactly what is specified in |name= – italics must be specified manually in this case.

Genus, species, and subspecies should be italicized whenever used, as is the biological standard. For instance, we talk about the genus Homo, the species Homo sapiens, and the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.

  • In botany, it is important to include the rank for taxa below species. The rank is not italicized, e.g. Genus species subsp. subspecies var. variety.
  • Some bacteria that have been characterized but not formally named are given Candidatus names. These should be written in the form Candidatus Genus species, rather than italicized normally.

Higher taxa like families may or may not be italicized in different publications. The prevalent standard for Wikipedia is not to italicize them, except in the case of viruses and other infectious particles.

Bolding is used to indicate the subject of the article. The name, binomial, and trinomial arguments bold automatically. In the placement section – regnum through species – the final taxon should be bolded, as well as any higher groups that only include the final taxon. See green sulfur bacteria for an example.

විද්‍යාත්මක වර්ගීකරණය
රාජධානිය: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
ගෝත්‍රය: Rosales
කුලය: Urticaceae
ගණය: ''Urtica''

Groups above the rank of species (and even species if there are several notable subspecies) should usually include a list of subgroups. Use the subdivision argument for the list, separating elements by <br> tags, and the subdivision_ranks argument to say what rank the subgroups have. For instance, for families in an order:

| subdivision_ranks = Families
| subdivision       =

The templates Template:Species list and Template:Taxon list (and their variants) can help to generate these lists.

For lists with more than a few subgroups, the list can be bracketed with {{div col}} and {{div col end}}, which will split the list into two columns (see Nettle example at right). In cases where a list would make the taxobox too long, or where the classification is too variable to allow a brief summary, the list should be replaced with a comment like "See text" or the subdivision section should be omitted. As a rule of thumb, when there are more than 100 subgroups the list should be in a separate article.

In cases where the classification is variable, a description like "Typical orders" or "Notable orders" may be used.

In cases where the ranks are uncertain, a description like "Subgroups" or "Taxa" may be preferable. Sometimes it is convenient to represent more than one level of classification in the list. In that case the lower level groups are moved over to the right by prefixing them with &nbsp; characters – usually three for the first level of indentation, and then one to three more for each subsequent level. Major grades may also be represented by bolded headers, as on plant and heterokont. Remember, though, these should mainly be done when the intermediate rank subgroups are not worthy of separate articles; taxoboxes are too small to include too much duplicate information.

Conservation status


Conservation status may optionally be included; you can search the IUCN's database of threatened species to find the conservation status of many organisms. It is included via the status argument, which takes a code or template. It is not appropriate for prehistoric organisms – the fossil_range parameter may be a more sensible option.

|status = code
|status_system = classification system (see below))required
|status_ref = <ref>...</ref>optional
|extinct = year of extinctionoptional (only use if |status = EX and year of extinction is known).

Use the above syntax, choosing one of the status codes from the code list below. The code may be all upper or lower case, but the cases used in the table are preferred.

IUCN Red List, ver. 3.1 (2001)
IUCN Red List, ver. 2.3 (1994)
NatureServe status
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Canada's COSEWIC Species at Risk Act (SARA)
Australia's EPBC Act
New Zealand Threat Classification System
Western Australia's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List

The following status codes are available (the third column shows the category that is automatically added to the article):

Status (as shown in taxobox) Code Category assigned
Secure secure[IUCN 1]
Domesticated DOM[IUCN 1] Domesticated animals
Least Concern (LC) LC
Least Concern (LR/lc) LR/lc
Near Threatened (NT) NT
Near Threatened (LC/nt) LR/nt
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) LR/cd
Vulnerable (VU) VU
Endangered (EN) EN Endangered species
Critically Endangered CR Critically endangered species
Critically Endangered (CR), possibly extinct PE Critically endangered species
Extinct in the wild (EW) EW Species extinct in the wild
Extinct EX
Data deficient (DD) DD
Not evaluated (NE) NE
Fossil fossil[IUCN 1][IUCN 2]
Prehistoric pre[IUCN 1]
See text See text[IUCN 1]
Lower Risk LR[IUCN 1][IUCN 3]
  1. ^ a b c d e f This is not a valid IUCN Red List category
  2. ^ |status=fossil is deprecated in favour of |fossil_range= {{fossil range}} (see the #Fossil range section below).
  3. ^ LR is deprecated; use LR/lc or LR/nt or LR/cd instead.

The criteria used by the IUCN should also be specified: (case-sensitive)

 | status_system = iucn3.1
 | status_system = iucn2.3 <!-- deprecated for new boxes, although some taxoboxes still exist and are supported for this version -->

This parameter is required in order to display the proper conservation status graphic. Failure to use this parameter will result in no graphic appearing.

Other systems are listed at Wikipedia:Conservation status.

Referencing conservation status

To add a reference for the status, use


See {{IUCN2012.2}} or {{IUCN}} for the arguments you need to supply to that template. And don't forget that <ref>...</ref> requires a corresponding <references/> in the References section.

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils may also be included, using the fossil_range argument. For instance, for a group known from the Cambrian to the Permian:

 |fossil_range = [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

You may wish to add a diagrammatic representation of the fossil range (as shown below), which can be created using the {{Fossil range}} template, for example:

  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}}


  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|542|250}} [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

For extant taxa that continue into the present day, the ending period should be set to "Recent" or as "Holocene" for Late Quaternary extinctions such as the Moa, and the current status should be indicated using the status argument.

For groups that only existed during a single period, simply list it without giving a range: e.g.:

 | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Silurian}} 

An image can be included using the argument image. It is highly recommended that an image be provided if one is available. Do not include the "File:" part of the image file name!

If an image is included, alt text should be provided using image_alt. Alt text should not repeat the caption; instead, it should describe the image to someone who can't see it (see WP:ALT).

A caption can be provided using image_caption. A caption need not be provided if it would just repeat the title of the article. It should be provided if it can convey any additional information about the image, such as the sex or life stage of the individual, the location where the picture was taken, the artist (if an engraving or other illustration), or (for higher taxa) the particular species depicted.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''

By default, the image width is determined by users' default thumb size preferences. In general, it is recommended that these preferences be honoured. In some cases, however, it may be desirable to overrule the default size; this can be achieved by use of the image_width parameter. Note that the Manual of Style recommends that if the default thumb size of a lead image is to be overruled, it should be made at least 300px wide, so that users whose default thumb size is 300px do not end up with a lead image smaller than the other images in the article.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''
| image_width   = 320px

Long or complex image captions, which should rarely be necessary, look better left-aligned. This can be achieved using |image_caption_align=left.

A second image may be added by use of the image2, image2_alt, image2_caption and image2_width arguments. Use this sparingly, and only when the article is long enough, and when it makes sense to include the second image here and not later in the article. Camel is a good example (a genus with two well-known representatives). A second image may also be useful for species that display sexual dimorphism so that both a male and female representative could be shown, e.g. Northern Cardinal.

Generally, an authority should be given only for the taxa covered by the article. Higher groups which only include the article subject should also list authorities unless those are the same as for the taxa in question. In the case of species (or subspecies) the authority may be given in the binomial (or trinomial) section. Otherwise authorities may be listed in the placement section. For instance, for an order:

| ordo = 
| ordo_authority = 

The following examples illustrate the different conventions for names, dates, and punctuations in the different kingdoms.

  • Animalia
    • Original name valid: Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758
    • Organism reclassified: Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) (originally Felis leo)
  • Plantae
    • Original name valid: Magnolia virginiana L.
    • Organism reclassified: Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. (originally Orchis pyramidalis)
  • Bacteria
    • Original name valid: Vibrio cholerae R. Koch 1883
    • Organism reclassified: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 (originally Micrococcus pneumoniae)
    • Old name revived: Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987

Authorities in scientific names are also abbreviated according to different standards for plants and animals. To decipher standard abbreviations, see

For more information refer to the article on binomial nomenclature.

In higher taxa, and taxa where the subdivision option does not indicate number of species, the diversity argument may be used. This needs to be accompanied by diversity_link which links to an appropriate page, usually a List of ... species page. See, for example, Banksia: the subdivision lists only two subgenera, so the diversity option is used to specify the number of species.

| diversity_link = List of Quercus species
| diversity = c. 120 species

It is not a good idea to be too precise about the number of species. New species are still being regularly described in many groups. Moreover, changing systematic treatment is liable to alter the species number even in well-known genera. Rounding off the species number and denoting this as approximate value will help decreasing maintenance.

Use the diversity_ref argument to give references for the number of species, for example:

|diversity_ref = <ref>Hershler and Longley, 1986, p. 127</ref>

A range map may be included at the end of the taxobox. This uses the range_map, range_map_width, range_map_alt, and range_map_caption arguments, in the same manner as an image. See leopard (land animal), Northern Flicker (non-migratory bird), Lesser Spotted Eagle (migratory bird) and orca (water animal) for examples.

| range_map         = Map.jpg
| range_map_width   = 240px
| range_map_alt     = Map showing ...
| range_map_caption = Range of ...

You can generate maps using an appropriate blank map such as Image:BlankMap-World-noborders.png. Do not make the distribution map too large (a width of 300 to 400 should be sufficient, the purpose of the map being a rough global overview; more detailed maps can always go to the article body) and add the map to Category:Habitat maps, or, preferably, if you upload the map to Commons, to commons:Category:Animal distribution maps.

Where a species has synonyms, the synonyms argument may be used. This should be a list of synonyms separated by <br/> tags.

| synonyms = 
''species1'' <small>Authority1</small><br/>
''species2'' <small>Authority2</small>

If the synonyms are too long to fit in a single line, you may also use a bulleted list:

| synonyms = 

The first format is preferred for clarity.

Please note: style element <small> is not recommended in Wikipedia:WikiProject Check Wikipedia#HTML text style element .3Csmall.3E, see discussion Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Check Wikipedia#Small style element.

Nomenclator Zoologicus has data for all but the most recently established animal genera. This may be hard to understand for non-specialists, but it is a comprehensive source for the authorship of genus names, both valid ones and junior synonyms. Sometimes one will note that a new name has been established because the older, original name was "preoccupied". This means it has already been established for another taxon of the same rank in the same kingdom before – even if that name is now a synonym too. Taxa that preoccupy a name can be linked in the Synonyms section, such as Stenorhynchus here.

Use |synonyms_ref= to give references for the synonym list, for example:

|synonyms_ref = <ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5</ref>

When the type species of a genus (or larger grouping) is known, the |type_species= and |type_species_authority= can be used. For animal entries, the type species should be the original binomial name of the type species, but linked to its current article, and the authority should be plain (no parenthesis). See Mirza for a type species example.

| type_species           = the original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature
| type_species_authority =

This follows ICZN Recommendation 67B; be aware that this means the taxon used by the genus' original author – even if it is now invalid, e.g. a junior synonym. Ideally, it should only be used if the genus' original description can be verified first-hand. As per the following example given by the ICZN:

Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, one of the nominal species originally included in the decapod crustacean genus Homarus Weber, 1795, was subsequently designated by Fowler (1912) as the type species of Homarus. The type species is, and should be cited as, Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Astacus marinus Fabricius is currently synonymized with Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758, but the latter is not the type species of Homarus and should not be cited as such. If mention of the type species is required it should be made in some such manner as "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, a junior synonym of Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758"; or "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, now regarded as a synonym of Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758)".

If you do not completely understand what this all means, please do not use this parameter. Instead, if possible denote the type species in the species listing, for example with a

<small>([[type species]])</small>

after the species' (currently valid) name.

Italic page titles


If the value of |genus=, |species=, or |binomial= exactly matches the title of the page, and |name= is unspecified, the taxobox and page title will be italicized automatically.[note 2] If necessary, it is also possible to force the page title to display in italics using the {{Italic title}} template.

If the |name= parameter is present, then the taxobox will display whatever is in |name=; the page title will NOT be italicized unless {{italic title}} is used.

Complete blank template


This section gives all parameters in the order that they will appear in the taxobox. No taxobox should use all of these. Keep it short!

කාලීන ව්‍යාප්තිය: 100–0 Ma
වෛරස වර්ගීකරණය
Group: virus_group
(unranked): unranked_superdomain
Superdomain: superdomain
අධිරාජධානිය: domain
උපරි-අධිරාජධානිය: superregnum
(unranked): unranked_regnum
රාජධානිය: regnum
උපරාජධානිය: subregnum
Superdivision: superdivisio
උපරිවංශය: superphylum
(unranked): unranked_divisio
Division: divisio
(unranked): unranked_phylum
වංශය: phylum
Subdivision: subdivisio
උපවංශය: subphylum
අධෝවංශය: infraphylum
ක්ෂුද්‍රවංශය: microphylum
නිනිතිවංශය: nanophylum
උපරිවර්ගය: superclassis
(unranked): unranked_classis
වර්ගය: classis
(unranked): unranked_subclassis
උපවර්ගය: subclassis
(unranked): unranked_infraclassis
අධෝවර්ගය: infraclassis
Magnorder: magnordo
Superorder: superordo
(unranked): unranked_ordo
ගෝත්‍රය: ordo
උපගෝත්‍රය: subordo
අධෝගෝත්‍රය: infraordo
Parvorder: parvordo
Division: zoodivisio
Section: zoosectio
Subsection: zoosubsectio
(unranked): unranked_superfamilia
උපරිකුලය: superfamilia
කුලය: familia
උපකුලය: subfamilia
Supertribe: supertribus
(unranked): unranked_tribus
Tribe: tribus
Subtribe: subtribus
alliance: alliance
(unranked): unranked_genus
ගණය: genus
උපගණය: subgenus
Section: sectio
Subsection: subsectio
Series: series
Subseries: subseries
විශේෂ සමූහය: species_group
විශේෂ උපසමූහය: species_subgroup
විශේෂ සංකීර්ණය: species_complex
විශේෂය: species
උපවිශේෂය: subspecies
Variety: variety
Form: forma
ද්වීපද නාමය
ත්‍රිපද නාමය
Type species
Type strain
type strain


පර්යාය නාම(ය)[3]


| color                           = 
| name                            = 
| status                          = 
| status_system                   = 
| status_ref                      = 
| fossil_range                    = 
| image                           = 
| image_width                     = 
| image_alt                       = 
| image_caption                   = 
| image_caption_align             =
| image2                          = 
| image2_width                    = 
| image2_alt                      = 
| image2_caption                  = 
| classification_status           = 
| virus_group                     = 
| unranked_superdomain            = 
| unranked_superdomain_authority  = 
| superdomain                     = 
| superdomain_authority           = 
| domain                          = 
| domain_authority                = 
| superregnum                     = 
| superregnum_authority           = 
| unranked_regnum                 = 
| unranked_regnum_authority       = 
| regnum                          = 
| regnum_authority                = 
| subregnum                       = 
| subregnum_authority             = 
| superdivisio                    = 
| superdivisio_authority          = 
| superphylum                     = 
| superphylum_authority           = 
| unranked_divisio                = 
| unranked_divisio_authority      =
| divisio                         = 
| divisio_authority               = 
| unranked_phylum                 = 
| unranked_phylum_authority       = 
| phylum                          = 
| phylum_authority                =
| subdivisio                      = 
| subdivisio_authority            = 
| subphylum                       = 
| subphylum_authority             = 
| infraphylum                     = 
| infraphylum_authority           = 
| microphylum                     = 
| microphylum_authority           = 
| nanophylum                      = 
| nanophylum_authority            = 
| superclassis                    = 
| superclassis_authority          = 
| unranked_classis                = 
| unranked_classis_authority      = 
| classis                         = 
| classis_authority               = 
| unranked_subclassis             = 
| unranked_subclassis_authority   = 
| subclassis                      = 
| subclassis_authority            = 
| unranked_infraclassis           = 
| unranked_infraclassis_authority = 
| infraclassis                    = 
| infraclassis_authority          = 
| magnordo                        = 
| magnordo_authority              = 
| superordo                       = 
| superordo_authority             = 
| unranked_ordo                   = 
| unranked_ordo_authority         = 
| ordo                            = 
| ordo_authority                  = 
| subordo                         = 
| subordo_authority               = 
| infraordo                       = 
| infraordo_authority             = 
| parvordo                        = 
| parvordo_authority              = 
| zoodivisio                      = 
| zoodivisio_authority            = 
| zoosectio                       = 
| zoosectio_authority             = 
| zoosubsectio                    = 
| zoosubsectio_authority          = 
| unranked_superfamilia           = 
| unranked_superfamilia_authority = 
| superfamilia                    = 
| superfamilia_authority          = 
| familia                         = 
| familia_authority               = 
| subfamilia                      = 
| subfamilia_authority            = 
| supertribus                     = 
| supertribus_authority           = 
| unranked_tribus                 = 
| unranked_tribus_authority       = 
| tribus                          = 
| tribus_authority                = 
| subtribus                       = 
| subtribus_authority             = 
| alliance                        = 
| alliance_authority              = 
| unranked_genus                  = 
| unranked_genus_authority        = 
| genus                           = 
| genus_authority                 = 
| subgenus                        = 
| subgenus_authority              = 
| sectio                          = 
| sectio_authority                = 
| subsectio                       = 
| subsectio_authority             = 
| series                          = 
| series_authority                = 
| subseries                       = 
| subseries_authority             = 
| species_group                   = 
| species_group_authority         = 
| species_subgroup                = 
| species_subgroup_authority      = 
| species_complex                 = 
| species_complex_authority       = 
| species                         = 
| species_authority               = 
| subspecies                      = 
| subspecies_authority            = 
| variety                         = 
| variety_authority               = 
| forma                           = 
| forma_authority                 = 
| diversity_ref                   = 
| diversity                       = 
| diversity_link                  = 
| binomial                        = 
| binomial_authority              = 
| trinomial                       = 
| trinomial_authority             = 
| type_species                    = 
| type_species_authority          = 
| subdivision                     = 
| subdivision_ranks               = 
| type_strain                     = 
| range_map                       = 
| range_map_width                 = 
| range_map_alt                   = 
| range_map_caption               = 
| binomial2                       = 
| binomial2_authority             = 
| range_map2                      = 
| range_map2_width                = 
| range_map2_alt                  = 
| range_map2_caption              = 
| binomial3                       = 
| binomial3_authority             = 
| range_map3                      = 
| range_map3_width                = 
| range_map3_alt                  = 
| range_map3_caption              = 
| binomial4                       = 
| binomial4_authority             = 
| range_map4                      = 
| range_map4_width                = 
| range_map4_alt                  = 
| range_map4_caption              = 
| synonyms_ref                    = 
| synonyms                        = 

The full list of parameters is illustrated inside the infobox above, in the "Complete blank template".

color - typical color code
name - name defaults to {{PAGENAME}}
status - conservation status code
status_system - status-system type
status_ref - status reference
regnum - (standard) kingdom name
phylum - (standard) phylum name
classis - (standard) class name
ordo - (standard) order name
familia - (standard) family name
genus - (standard) genus name
species - (standard) species name
fossil_range - (as shown at top of box)
image - (as shown in box)
image_width - (as shown in box)
image_alt - (as shown in box)
image_caption - (as shown in box)
image2 - (as shown in box)
image2_width - (as shown in box)
image2_alt - (as shown in box)
image2_caption - (as shown in box)
classification_status - (as shown in box)
virus_group - (as shown in box)
superdomain - (as shown in box)
superdomain_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain - (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain_ authority - (as shown in box)
domain - (as shown in box)
domain_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum - (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum_ authority - (as shown in box)
superregnum - (as shown in box)
superregnum_authority - (as shown in box)
regnum_authority - (as shown in box)
subregnum - (as shown in box)
subregnum_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum - (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum_ authority - (as shown in box)
superdivisio - (as shown in box)
superdivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
superphylum - (as shown in box)
superphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
divisio - (as shown in box)
divisio_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio - (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio_ authority - (as shown in box)
phylum_authority - (as shown in box)
subdivisio - (as shown in box)
subdivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
subphylum - (as shown in box)
subphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
infraphylum - (as shown in box)
infraphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
microphylum - (as shown in box)
microphylum_authority - (as shown in box)
nanophylum - (as shown in box)
nanophylum_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_classis - (as shown in box)
unranked_classis_ authority - (as shown in box)
superclassis - (as shown in box)
superclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
classis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis - (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis_ authority - (as shown in box)
subclassis - (as shown in box)
subclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis - (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis_ authority - (as shown in box)
infraclassis - (as shown in box)
infraclassis_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo - (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo_authority - (as shown in box)
magnordo - (as shown in box)
magnordo_authority - (as shown in box)
superordo - (as shown in box)
superordo_authority - (as shown in box)
ordo_authority - (as shown in box)
subordo - (as shown in box)
subordo_authority - (as shown in box)
infraordo - (as shown in box)
infraordo_authority - (as shown in box)
parvordo - (as shown in box)
parvordo_authority - (as shown in box)
zoodivisio - (as shown in box)
zoodivisio_authority - (as shown in box)
zoosectio - (as shown in box)
zoosectio_authority - (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio - (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia - (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia_ authority - (as shown in box)
superfamilia - (as shown in box)
superfamilia_authority - (as shown in box)
familia_authority - (as shown in box)
subfamilia - (as shown in box)
subfamilia_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus - (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus_ authority - (as shown in box)
supertribus - (as shown in box)
supertribus_authority - (as shown in box)
tribus - (as shown in box)
tribus_authority - (as shown in box)
subtribus - (as shown in box)
subtribus_authority - (as shown in box)
alliance - (as shown in box)
alliance_authority - (as shown in box)
unranked_genus - (as shown in box)
unranked_genus_ authority - (as shown in box)
genus_authority - (as shown in box)
subgenus - (as shown in box)
subgenus_authority - (as shown in box)
sectio - (as shown in box)
sectio_authority - (as shown in box)
subsectio - (as shown in box)
subsectio_authority - (as shown in box)
series - (as shown in box)
series_authority - (as shown in box)
subseries - (as shown in box)
subseries_authority - (as shown in box)
species_group - (as shown in box)
species_group_authority - (as shown in box)
species_subgroup - (as shown in box)
species_subgroup_ authority - (as shown in box)
species_complex - (as shown in box)
species_complex_ authority - (as shown in box)
species_authority - (as shown in box)
subspecies - (as shown in box)
subspecies_authority - (as shown in box)
variety - (as shown in box)
variety_authority - (as shown in box)
forma - (as shown in box)
forma_authority - (as shown in box)
diversity_ref - (as shown in box)
diversity - (as shown in box)
diversity_link - (as shown in box)
binomial - (as shown in box)
binomial_authority - (as shown in box)
trinomial - (as shown in box)
trinomial_authority - (as shown in box)
type_species - (as shown in box)
type_species_authority - (as shown in box)
subdivision - (as shown in box)
subdivision_ranks - (as shown in box)
type_strain - (as shown in box)
range_map - 1st map, bottom of box
range_map_width - 1st map width as 200px
range_map_alt - 1st map ALT= text
range_map_caption - 1st caption, under picture
binomial2 - (as shown in box)
binomial2_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map2 - 2nd map in box
range_map2_width - 2nd map width as 200px
range_map2_alt - 2nd map ALT= text
range_map2_caption - 2nd map caption
binomial3 - (as shown in box)
binomial3_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map3 - 3rd map in box
range_map3_width - 3rd map width as 200px
range_map3_alt - 3rd map ALT= text
range_map3_caption - 3rd maq caption
binomial4 - (as shown in box)
binomial4_authority - (as shown in box)
range_map4 - 4th map in box
range_map4_width - 4th map width as 200px
range_map4_alt - 4th map ALT= text
range_map4_caption - 4th map caption
synonyms_ref - reference for synonyms
synonyms - (as at bottom of box)

Articles lacking taxoboxes


For articles lacking taxoboxes, add Template:Missing-taxobox to the talk page. This may be done by typing {{Missing-taxobox}} or {{needtaxobox}} at the top of the talk page.

This template emits a "species" (or "biota") microformat.

The microformat is created by the use of class="biota", and classes for individual taxonomic ranks, such as class="domain" in a span around {{{domain}}} (full list). Please do not change or remove those classes other than as part of development of the microformat. For background information, see microformats on Wikipedia and the microformat specification.

This is the TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, VisualEditor and other tools. Click here to see a monthly parameter usage report for this template based on this TemplateData.

TemplateData for වර්ගීකරණකොටුව

An infobox for plants, animals and other biological taxa

Template parameters[Edit template data]


For plants, see [[Wikipedia:Naming conventions (flora)]]. For all other living things, the name should be the most common vernacular name, when one is in widespread use, and a scientific name otherwise.


An image to use, do not include the 'File:' part of the image file name.

Image Widthimage_width image width

Width to display the image at. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Image alt textimage_alt image alt

Alt text which describes the image to someone who can't see it

Image captionimage_caption image caption

Caption displayed under the image

Image caption alignmentimage_caption_align image caption alignment

Alignment of the caption displayed under the image, e.g. left. Should not normally be set.


Kingdom: [[Animal]]ia, [[Plant]]ae, [[Fungi]], other taxa may want to use domain or other ranks instead


Division in botany, e.g. [[Bryophyta]]. Not for flowering plants using the APG III system


Phylum in zoology, eg [[Chordata]] for vertebrates


Class/classis taxonomic rank


Order/ordo taxonomic rank


Family/familia taxonomic rank


Genus taxonomic rank, in italics, e.g. ''[[Homo]]''


Species taxonomic rank. Should be given in abbreviated forms and in italics, e.g. ''H. sapiens''.


Full binomial name of taxa, In full form with italics, e.g. ''Salix alba'' var. ''caerulea''

Binomial authoritybinomial_authority binomial authority

Binomial authority using appropriate conventions, eg [[Carl Linnaeus|L.]] (for plants), [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1761 (for animals)

Range maprange_map range map

Map of range

Range map widthrange_map_width range map width

Width to display range map. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Range map alt textrange_map_alt range map alt

Alt text describing the range in words

Range map captionrange_map_caption range map caption

Caption/key for the range map

Conservation statusstatus

The conservation status code: 'secure', domesticated 'DOM', Least Concern 'LC', Lower Risk—Least Concern 'LR/lc', Near Threatened 'NT', Lower Risk—Near Threatened 'LR/nt', Lower Risk—Conservation Dependent 'LR/cd', Vulnerable 'VU', Endangered 'EN', Critically Endangered 'CR', Possibly Extinct 'PE', Extinct in the wild 'EW', Extinct 'EX', Data deficient 'DD', Not evaluated 'NE',Fossil 'fossil', Prehistoric 'pre', 'See text', Lower Risk 'LR'

Conservation status systemstatus_system status system

System used for Conservation status: 'iucn3.1', 'iucn2.3', 'EPBC' etc. Required if status given.

Status referencestatus_ref status ref

Reference for status <ref>{{IUCN2012.2|...}}</ref>

Year of extinctionextinct

Year of extinction, if known

Fossil rangefossil_range fossil range

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils. E.g. [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]] or {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}} to give a chart. Use 'Recent' for extant taxa and 'Holocene' for for Late Quaternary extinctions.

virus groupvirus_group virus group

Viruses not placed in taxa above the rank of order, instead a virus group is used, given by a Roman numeral from I to VII

Unranked superdomainunranked_superdomain unranked superdomain

For each major taxon you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked_X appears above rank X


This and other minor ranks should only be used when they are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article

Superdomain Authoritysuperdomain_authority superdomain authority

The authority used for this rank. Every rank has a rank_authority field which are not currently listed


Domain for Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya


unranked kingdomunranked_regnum unranked regnum




Unranked divisionunranked_divisio unranked divisio

For flowering plants using the APG III system this should be set to [[Angiosperms]] rather than using division/divisio

Unranked phylumunranked_phylum unranked phylum






Unranked classunranked_classis unranked classis

For flowering plants using the APG III system this should be used rather than class/classis

unranked subclassisunranked_subclassis unranked subclassis


unranked infraclassisunranked_infraclassis unranked infraclassis




Unranked orderunranked_ordo unranked ordo

Generally used for flowering plants using the APG III system





Used in zoology, a different rank to the division used in botany.


Used in zoology, a different rank to the section used in botany.


Used in zoology, a different rank to the subsection used in botany.

Unranked Superfamilyunranked_superfamilia unranked superfamilia




unranked tribeunranked_tribus unranked tribus




Unranked genusunranked_genus unranked genus



Used in botany, use zoosectio in zoology


Used in botany, use zoosubsectio in zoology



Species groupspecies_group species group

species subgroupspecies_subgroup species subgroup

species complexspecies_complex species complex




Used in botany, not in zoology


The full trinomial name for subspecies, it should generally be in italics.

trinomial authoritytrinomial_authority trinomial authority

The authority for a trinomial.


A list of synonyms for a species, e.g. ''species1'' <small>Authority1</small><br/> ''species2'' <small>Authority2</small>

Synonyms refsynonyms_ref synonyms ref

References for the synonym lists, e.g.<ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5</ref>

Type speciestype_species type species

The original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature.

Type species authoritytype_species_authority type species authority

Authority for the type species, don't use parenthesis.

Classification statusclassification_status classification status

Status of the scientific classification, e.g. disputed. Only use when the scientific classification text would be misleading without it.

Subdivision rankssubdivision_ranks subdivision ranks

Rank used for sub-divisions of this taxa, e.g. 'Families'


List of sub divisions of this taxa, e.g. [[Family1]]<br/> [[Family2]]<br/> [[Family3]]

Image 2image2

A second image, only use in rare circumstances.

Image 2 Widthimage2_width image2 width

Width of the second image

Image 2 alt textimage2_alt image2 alt

Alt text which describes the second image to someone who can't see it

Image 2 captionimage2_caption image2 caption

Caption to display under the second image


Second binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 2binomial2_authority binomial2 authority

Authority of second binomial


Third binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 3binomial3_authority binomial3 authority

Authority of third binomial


Forth binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 4binomial4_authority binomial4 authority

Authority of forth binomial

Range map 2range_map2 range map2

Second map of range

Range map 2 widthrange_map2_width range map2 width

Width of second range map

Range map 2 alt textrange_map2_alt range map2 alt

Alt text describing the second range map

Range map 2 captionrange_map2_caption range map2 caption

Caption/key for the second range map

Range map 3range_map3 range map3

Third map of range

Range map 3 widthrange_map3_width range map3 width

Width of third range map

Range map 3 alt textrange_map3_alt range map3 alt

Alt text describing the third range map

Range map 3 captionrange_map3_caption range map3 caption

Caption/key for the third range map

Range map 4range_map4 range map4

Forth map of range

Range map 4 widthrange_map4_width range map4 width

Width of forth range map

Range map 4 alt textrange_map4_alt range map4 alt

Alt text describing the forth range map

Range map 4 captionrange_map4_caption range map4 caption

Caption/key for the forth range map


Generally not used as it is automatically assigned based on the entry for regnum, virus_group, unranked_phylum, phylum.

  1. ^ iucn reference goes here
  2. ^ diversity_ref
  3. ^ synonyms_ref
  1. ^ If the page is called, for example, "Homo (genus)", then the taxobox will display "Homo" and the page title "Homo (genus)".
  2. ^ See note 1; the title of the page will be italicized using the {{DISPLAYTITLE}} magic word. When the page name contains the disambiguator "(alga)" or "(genus)", this disambiguator will not be italicized (e.g., Ia (genus)).