විකිපීඩියා:ලිපි මාතෘකා

(විකිපීඩියා:Article titles වෙතින් යළි-යොමු කරන ලදි)
මෙම ලිපියේ අඩංගු කරුණු සැකෙවින්: Article titles should be recognizable to readers, unambiguous, and consistent with usage in reliable English-language sources.

සිංහල විකිපීඩියාවෙහි ලිපි මාතෘකා පිළිබඳව ප්‍රජාව එකඟවූ පුළුල් සම්මුතියක් තනි ලිපියක් ලෙස මෙහි තවමත් සැකසී නැත. එනමුත් විවිධ අවස්ථාවන්හී (කෝපිකඩේ සහ අදාල සාකච්චා පිටුවල) එකඟවූ සහ විරුද්ධත්වයක් නොමැතිව දිගුකලක් භාවිතාකල සම්මතයන් ඇත. එවැනි සම්මතයන් සහ ඉදිරියේදී එලඹෙන සම්මතයන් මෙහි ප්‍රලේඛනයකල යුතුව ඇත.

අනෙකුත් සම්මුතීන් වලදී මෙන් ඉංග්‍රීසි විකිපීඩියාවේ සම්මුතීඅ මෙහිදී එලෙසින්ම මෙහි භාවිතා කල නොහැක්කේ භාෂාවන්ට සහ භාෂාවන් බහුලව භාවිතකරන ජනයාගේ සංස්කෘතීන් වෙනස් බැවිනි. එතමුත් භාෂා විශේෂිත නොවන සහ සිංහල බස ලියන කියවන බහුතරයේ සංස්කෘතිකය සමග ගැටුමක් නොමැතිවිට ඉංග්‍රීසි විකිපීඩියාවේ සම්මුතීන් මෙයට අදාල වේ.

ලිපි මාතෘකාව තීරණය කිරීම


Article titles are based on what reliable English-language sources refer to the article's subject by. There are often two or more possible alternative titles for any given article; the choice between them is made by consensus.

A good Wikipedia article title has the five following characteristics:

  • හඳුනාගතහැකිබව – Titles are names or descriptions of the topic that are recognizable to someone familiar with (though not necessarily expert in) the topic.
  • සාමාන්‍යබව – Titles are those that readers are likely to look for or search with as well as those that editors naturally use to link from other articles. Such titles usually convey what the subject is actually called in සිංහල.
  • නිශ්චිතබව – Titles usually use names and terms that are precise enough to unambiguously identify the topical scope of the article, but not overly precise.
  • කෙටිබව – Titles are concise, and not overly long.
  • නොවෙනස්බව – Titles follow the same pattern as those of similar articles. Many of these patterns are documented in the naming guidelines listed in the Specific-topic naming conventions box above, and ideally indicate titles that are in accordance with the principles above.

When titling articles in specific fields, or with respect to particular problems, there is often previous consensus that can be used as a precedent. Look to the guideline pages referenced. When no previous consensus exists, a new consensus is established through discussion, with the above questions in mind. The choice of article titles should put the interests of readers before those of editors, and those of a general audience before those of specialists.

Redirects should be created to articles that may reasonably be searched for or linked to under two or more names (such as different spellings or former names). Conversely, a name that could refer to several different articles may require disambiguation.

නිතර යෙදෙන නම්


ලිපි මාතෘකා බොහෝවිට සඥා නාම (පුද්ගලයෙක්ගේ නම, ස්ථානයක නම, යම් දෙයක නම වැනි)වේ. The most common name for a subject,[1] as determined by its prevalence in reliable සිංහල-language sources, is often used as a title because it is recognizable and natural. Editors should also consider the criteria outlined above. Ambiguous[2] or inaccurate names for the article subject, as determined in reliable sources, are often avoided even though they may be more frequently used by reliable sources. Neutrality is also considered; our policy on neutral titles, and what neutrality in titles is, follows in the next section. When there are several names for a subject, all of them fairly common, and the most common has problems, it is perfectly reasonable to choose one of the others.

විකිපීඩියා ලිපි මාතෘකාව අනිවාර්යයෙන්ම යමක "නිල" නාමයම විය යුතුයයි නියමයක් නැත. වැරදි තේරුමක්, නොමග යැවීමක් හෝ අනිසි ප්‍රථිපලයක් සිදුනොවන්නේ නම් වඩාත් භාවිතාවන වචනය යෙදීම යෝග්‍ය වේ. If the name of a person, group, object, or other article topic changes, then more weight should be given to the name used in reliable sources published after the name change than in those before the change. For cases where usage differs among විවිධ ප්‍රදේශවල සිංහල, see also ප්‍රාදේශීය සිංහල විවිධත්වය below.

ලිපි මාතෘකාව අසැබි හෝ පණ්ඩිතමානී නොවියයුතුය. The term most typically used in reliable sources is preferred to technically correct but rarer forms, whether the official name, the scientific name, the birth name, the original name, or the trademarked name. (see below).

The following are examples of common names that Wikipedia uses as article titles instead of more elaborate, formal, or scientific alternatives:

ටී.බී. ඉලංගරත්න (ටිකිරි බණ්ඩාර ඉලංගරත්න නොවේ)
  • Big Dig (not: Central Artery/Tunnel Project)
  • Caffeine (not: 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione)
  • Confucius (not: Kong Qiu, Kong Fuzi, or K'ung Fu-tzu)
  • Guinea pig (not: Cavia porcellus)
අඹ (Mangifera indica නොවේ)
  • Gulzar (not: Sampooran Singh Kalra)
  • The Hague (not: 's-Gravenhage)
  • Halley's Comet (not: 1P/Halley)
  • Heroin (not: Diacetylmorphine)
  • H. H. Asquith (not: Herbert Henry Asquith)
  • Mother Teresa (not: Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta or Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu)
  • Nazi Party (not: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)
  • North Korea (not: Bukchosŏn, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk)
  • Pelé (not: Edson Arantes do Nascimento)
  • Rhode Island (not: State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations)
  • Romeo and Juliet (not: The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet)
  • Shas (not: Shomrei Sfarad)
  • United Kingdom (not: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
  • United States Code (not: Code of Laws of the United States of America)
  • Venus de Milo (not: Aphrodite of Melos)
  • Xuxa (not: Maria da Graça Meneghel)

In determining which of several alternative names is most frequently used, it is useful to observe the usage of major international organizations, major English-language media outlets, quality encyclopedias, geographic name servers, major scientific bodies, and notable scientific journals. A search engine may help to collect this data; when using a search engine, restrict the results to pages written in English, and exclude the word "Wikipedia". When using Google, generally a search of Google Books and News Archive should be defaulted to before a web search, as they concentrate reliable sources (exclude works from Books, LLC when searching Google Books[3]). Search engine results are subject to certain biases and technical limitations; for detailed advice on the use of search engines and the interpretation of their results, see Wikipedia:Search engine test.

When there is no single obvious term that is obviously the most frequently used for the topic, as used by a significant majority of reliable English language sources, editors should reach a consensus as to which title is best by considering the criteria listed above.

Wikipedia is not a crystal ball. We do not know what terms will be used in the future, but only what is and has been in use, and is therefore familiar to our readers. However, common sense can be applied – if an organization changes its name, it is reasonable to consider the usage since the change.

This provision also applies to names used as part of descriptive titles.

See: http://books.google.com/ngrams/

නිශ්චිතබව සහ තේරුම නිරාකරණය




Usually, titles should be precise enough to unambiguously define the topical scope of the article, but no more precise than that. For instance, Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta is too precise, as Mother Teresa is precise enough to indicate exactly the same topic. On the other hand, Horowitz would not be precise enough to identify unambiguously the famous classical pianist Vladimir Horowitz.

Exceptions to the precision criterion, validated by consensus, may sometimes result from the application of some other naming criteria. Most of these exceptions are described in specific Wikipedia guidelines, such as Primary topic, Geographic names, or Names of royals and nobles. For instance:

  • Bothell is precise enough to be unambiguous, but not as commonly used and easily recognizable as the preferred and more precise title Bothell, Washington (see Geographic names, and the naturalness and recognizability criteria).
  • Energy is not precise enough to indicate unambiguously the physical quantity (see Energy (disambiguation)). However, it is preferred over "Energy (physics)", as it is more concise, and precise enough to be understood by most people (see Primary topic, and the conciseness and recognizability criteria).

තේරුම නිරාකරණය

This policy section should be read in conjunction with the disambiguation guideline.

It is not always possible to use the exact title that may be desired for an article, as that title may have other meanings, and therefore may have been already used for other articles. According to the above-mentioned precision criterion, when a more detailed title is necessary to distinguish an article topic from another, use only as much additional detail as necessary. For example, it would be inappropriate to title an article "Queen (rock band)", as Queen (band) is precise enough to distinguish the rock band from other uses of the term Queen.

As a general rule, when a topic's preferred title can also refer to other topics covered in Wikipedia:

  • If the article is about the primary topic to which the ambiguous name refers, then that name can be its title without modification, provided it follows all other applicable policies.
  • If the topic is not primary, the ambiguous name cannot be used and so must be disambiguated.

There are generally three methods employed to avoid using an ambiguous title:

  1. Natural disambiguation: If it exists, choose an alternative name that the subject is also commonly called in English, albeit not as commonly as the preferred-but-ambiguous title. Do not, however, use obscure or made-up names.
    Example: The word "English" commonly refers to either the people or the language. Because of the ambiguity, we use the alternative but still common titles, English language and English people, allowing natural disambiguation.
  2. Parenthetical disambiguation: If natural disambiguation is not possible, add a disambiguating term in parentheses, after the ambiguous name.
    Example: The word "mercury" has distinct meanings that do not have sufficiently common alternative names, so we use instead parenthetical disambiguation: Mercury (element), Mercury (mythology), and Mercury (planet).
  3. Comma-separated disambiguation. With place names, if the disambiguating term is a higher-level administrative division, it is often separated using a comma instead of parentheses, as in Windsor, Berkshire (see Geographic names). Comma-separated disambiguation is sometimes also used in other contexts (e.g., Diana, Princess of Wales; see Names of royals and nobles). However, titles such as Tony Blair and Battle of Waterloo are preferred over alternatives such as "Blair, Anthony Charles Lynton" and "Waterloo, Battle of", in which a comma is used to change the natural ordering of the words.

Where there is no set name for a topic, so a title of our own conception is necessary, e.g., List of birds of Nicaragua and Campaign history of the Roman military, more latitude is allowed to form descriptive and unique titles.

Titles of distinct articles may differ only in their detail. Many such differences involve capitalization, separation or non-separation of components, or pluralization: MAVEN and Maven; Red Meat and Red meat; Sea-Monkeys and SeaMonkey. While each name in such a pair may already be precise and apt, a reader who enters one term might in fact be looking for the other; so use appropriate disambiguation techniques, such as hatnotes or disambiguation pages, to help readers find the article they want.

ලිපි මාතෘකා විලාසය


The following points are used in deciding on questions not covered by the five principles; consistency on these helps avoid duplicate articles:

බහු වචන භාවිතා කරන්න
සිංහල නාමපද වල මූලික ස්වරූපය බහු වවනය වන බැවින් නිශ්චිත පුද්ගලයෙක් හෝ දෙයක් පිලිබඳ ලිපියකදී හැර අන් අවස්ථාවලසදී ලිපි මාතෘකා සාමාන්‍යයෙන් බහු වචන වියයුතුය, e.g. මල්, (මල නොවේ), පොල්, (පොලය හෝ පොල් ගෙඩිය නොවේ).
විවිධ තේරුම් ගෙනදියහැකි කෙටි යෙදුම් නොයොදන්න
Abbreviations and acronyms are often ambiguous and thus should be avoided unless the subject is known primarily by its abbreviation and that abbreviation is primarily associated with the subject (e.g. NATO, laser, USB). The abbreviation UK, for United Kingdom, is acceptable for use in disambiguation. It is also unnecessary to include an acronym in addition to the name in a title. For more details, see WP:ACRONYMTITLE.
නාම පද භාවිතා කරන්න
Nouns and noun phrases are normally preferred over titles using other parts of speech; such a title can be the subject of the first sentence. One major exception is for titles that are quotations or titles of works: A rolling stone gathers no moss, or Try to Remember. Adjective and verb forms (e.g. democratic, integrate) should redirect to articles titled with the corresponding noun (ප්‍රජාතන්ත්‍රවාදය, Integration), although sometimes they are disambiguation pages, as at Organic. Sometimes the noun corresponding to a verb is the gerund (-ing form), as in Swimming.
Do not enclose titles in quotes
Article titles that are quotes (or song titles, etc.) are not enclosed in quotation marks (e.g. To be, or not to be is the article title, while "To be, or not to be" is a redirect to that article). An exception is made when the quotation marks are part of a name or title (as in the movie "Crocodile" Dundee or the album "Heroes").
Do not use titles suggesting that one article forms part of another: even if an article is considered subsidiary to another (as where summary style is used), it should be named independently. For example, an article on transportation in Azerbaijan should not be given a name like "Azerbaijan/Transportation" or "Azerbaijan (transportation)" – use Transportation in Azerbaijan. (This does not always apply in non-article namespaces: see Wikipedia:Subpages.)

Special characters


There are technical restrictions on the use of certain characters in page titles. The following characters cannot be used at all: # < > [ ] | { } _

There are restrictions on titles containing colons, periods, and some other characters. Technically all other Unicode characters can be used in page titles; but some characters should still be avoided, or require special treatment:

  • Characters not on a standard keyboard (use redirects): Sometimes the most appropriate title contains diacritics (accent marks), dashes, or other letters and characters not found on most English-language keyboards. This can make it difficult to navigate to the article directly. In such cases, provide redirects from versions of the title that use only standard keyboard characters. (Similarly, in cases where it is determined that the most appropriate title is one that omits diacritics, dashes, and other letters not found on most English-language keyboards, provide redirects from versions of the title that contain them.)
  • Characters resembling quotes or accent marks (avoid them): The characters ʻ ʾ ʿ ᾿ ῾ ‘ ’ “ ” c, and also combining diacritical marks with a "space" character, should generally not be used in page titles. A common exception is the apostrophe ' (e.g. Anthony d'Offay), which should, however, be used sparingly (e.g. Shia instead of Shi'a). See also Manual of Style (punctuation).
  • Symbols (avoid them): Symbols such as "♥", as sometimes found in advertisements or logos, should never be used in titles. This includes non-Latin punctuation such as the characters in Unicode's CJK Symbols and Punctuation block.
  • Characters not supported on all browsers (avoid them): If there is a reasonable alternative, avoid characters that are so rare that many browsers cannot render them. For example, the article on Weierstrass p carries that title rather than the symbol itself, which many readers would see as just a square box.

ඇලකුරු සහ වෙනත් විලාස යොදාගැනීම


Use italics when italics would be used in running text; for example, taxonomic names, the names of ships, the titles of books, films, and other creative works, and foreign phrases are italicized both in ordinary text and in article titles.[4]

Italic formatting cannot be part of the actual (stored) title of a page; a title or part of it is made to appear in italics with the use of the DISPLAYTITLE magic word or the {{Italic title}} template. In addition, certain templates, including Template:Infobox book, Template:Infobox film, and Template:Infobox album, by default italicize the titles of the pages they appear on; see the pages for those templates for details. For details, see Italics and formatting on the technical restrictions page.

Other types of formatting (such as bold type and superscript) can technically be achieved in the same way, but should generally not be used in Wikipedia article titles (except for articles on mathematics). Quotation marks (such as around song titles) would not require special techniques for display, but are nevertheless avoided in titles; see Article title format above.

  1. Where the term "common name" appears in this policy it means a commonly or frequently used name, and not a common name as used in some disciplines in opposition to scientific name.
  2. Ambiguity as used here is unrelated to whether a title requires disambiguation pages on the English Wikipedia. For example, heart attack is an ambiguous title, because the term can refer to multiple medical conditions, including cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and panic attack.
  3. Add this code in the search: -inauthor:"Books, LLC" (the quotes " " are essential); Books, LLC "publishes" compilations of WP articles.
  4. This was decided during a July–September 2010 poll on the article talk page. See Wikipedia talk:Article titles/Archive 29#Wikipedia:Requests for comment:Use of italics in article titles as well as the discussions that led up to the poll at Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style/Archive 116#Italicised article titles and Wikipedia talk:Manual of Style/Archive 116#Request for comment: Use of italics in article names