සැකිල්ල:Politics of Russia

Russia is a federation which consists of 83 subjects.[1] These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia). However, they do differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Autonomous okrugs, while federal subjects in their own right, are, at the same time, considered to be administrative divisions of other federal subjects (with Chukotka Autonomous Okrug being the only exception).

Types of federal subjects of Russiaසංස්කරණය

Each subject of the federation belongs to one of the following categories:

21 republics (республики, sing. республика; respubliki, sing. respublika)—nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution, president and parliament; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; and is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
46 oblasts (provinces) (области, sing. область; oblasti, sing. oblast)—most common, regular administrative units with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after the oblast center—the largest city in the oblast, its administrative center.
krais (territories) (края, sing. край; kraya, sing. krai or kray, the latter being less common)—essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
autonomous oblast (autonomous province) (автономная область; avtonomnaya oblast) (The Jewish Autonomous Oblast)
autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts) (автономные округа, sing. автономный округ; avtonomnyye okruga, sing. avtonomny okrug)—more autonomous than oblasts but less than republics; usually with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
federal cities (cities under direct jurisdiction of the Federation) (федеральные города, sing. федеральный город; federalnyye goroda, sing. federalny gorod)—major cities that function as separate regions.

List of federal subjectsසංස්කරණය

The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 89, although 6 of them are no longer in use after mergers. සැකිල්ල:List of federal subjects of Russia

Mergersසංස්කරණය

 
Federal subjects of the Russian Federation

Plans existed to merge some of the federal subjects into larger territories, which started in December 2005. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Proposals Date of referendum Date of merger Merger
1, 1a December 7, 2003 December 1, 2005 Perm Oblast + Komi-Permyak Autonomous OkrugPerm Krai
2, 2a, 2b April 17, 2005 January 1, 2007 Krasnoyarsk Krai + Evenk Autonomous Okrug + Taymyr Autonomous OkrugKrasnoyarsk Krai
3, 3a October 23, 2005 July 1, 2007 Kamchatka Oblast + Koryak Autonomous OkrugKamchatka Krai
4, 4a April 16, 2006 January 1, 2008 Irkutsk Oblast + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous OkrugIrkutsk Oblast
5, 5a March 11, 2007 March 1, 2008 Chita Oblast + Agin-Buryat Autonomous OkrugZabaykalsky Krai

Further proposals for mergersසංස්කරණය

Proposals Federal subjects Map
6, 6a Arkhangelsk Oblast
Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai 1 September 09
   
7, 7a, 7b Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai      
8, 8a Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai    
9, 9a, 9b Irkutsk Oblast + Buryatia Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baikal Krai      
10, 10a, 10b Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai      
11, 11a, 11b Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai      
12, 12a, 12b Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai      
13 Saint Petersburg (federal city) + Leningrad Oblast = Leningrad Oblast    
14 Moscow (federal city) + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast    
15, 15a Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslav Krai    
16, 16a Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai    
17, 17a Krasnodar Krai + Adygea Republic = Krasnodar Krai    
18, 18a Ingushetia Republic + Chechnya Republic = Wainach Republic    
* Pomorsky + Murmansk Oblast + Komi Republic = ???????      

See alsoසංස්කරණය

Referencesසංස්කරණය

  1. Конституция Российской Федерации, Статья 65 (Constitution of Russia, Article 65) (රුසියානු). In 1993, when the constitution was adopted, there were 89 subjects listed. Some of them were later merged.

External linksසංස්කරණය

සැකිල්ල:Federal subjects of Russia සැකිල්ල:Articles on first-level administrative divisions of European countries සැකිල්ල:Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries

සැකිල්ල:Link FL

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