Canonically there are 22 shrutis in an octave although systems with more or fewer śruti have been proposed.[තහවුරු කරන්න] Here they are given in terms of just intonation, although many authors assume schismatic temperament implicitly.
There are infinite ratios, and therefore kinds of shrutis, in Indian music as there is full freedom; yet the classical values described are
- Chatuh shruti : 9/8
- Tri shruti : 10/9
- Dwi shruti : 16/15
- Single or Mono shruti (pramana shruti): 81/80.
Furthermore, there are Antar-shruti which give distances between two Swaras (notes):
- 2:1 is taken as distance from S to S' (or r to r', R to R', g to g', etc.), and was placed on "4th śruti"
- 3:2 is taken as distance from S to P (i.e. fro 1st to 5th tone), and was placed on "17th śruti"
- 4:3 is taken as distance from S to m, and was placed on "13th śruti"
- 5:4 is taken as distance from S to G, and was placed on "9th śruti"
- 6:5 is taken as distance from S to g, and was called teevra in old ages as moving Ga towards Re makes Re shuddha.
Shrutis in Hindustani Musicසංස්කරණය
The table lists the 22 shrutis canonically defined in Hindustani music, defined as intervals from the swara Shadja. Shadja is assumed to be equivalent to the note Aසැකිල්ල:Music. Their width is given as frequency ratio or in cents. A comparison with intervals in Western music (5-limit tuning) is also provided.
in 5-limit tuning
|Name||Frequency in 12-TET|
|Dayavanti||32/27||294||Minor third||කෝමල ගාන්ධාරය||552.4904||Cසැකිල්ල:Music||554.3653|
|Raktika||5/4||386||Major third||ශුද්ධ ගාන්ධාරය||582.7048||D||587.3296|
|Krodhi||4/3||498||Perfect fourth||ශුද්ධ මධ්යමය||621.5517||Dසැකිල්ල:Music||622.2540|
|Prasarini||45/32||590||Augmented fourth||තීව්ර මධ්යමය||655.5428||E||659.2552|
|Madni||16/9||996||Minor seventh||කෝමල නිෂාදය||828.7356||Gසැකිල්ල:Music||830.6095|
This table does not reflect contemporary Indian point of view on Srutis in Hindustani music.
- Lentz, Donald A. Tones and Intervals of Hindu Classical Music. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1961.
- Deva, B Chaitanya The Music of India: A Scientific Study.
- Rao, Suvarnalata Acoustical Perspective on Raga Rasa Theory.
- Datta, A. K., Sengupta, R., Dey, N. and Nag, D. Experimental Analysis of Shrutis from Performances in Hindustani Music. Kolkata: Scientific Research Department ITC Sangeet Research Academy, 2006.
- http://www.22shrutiharmonium.com A 22-shruti harmonium by Dr. Vidyadhar Oke
- www.soundofindia.com Article on shrutis by Jeyanthe Ratnakumar
- Sound samples of Indian shrutis and their names
- A software implementation of 22 Srutis with 12 Indian Classical Instruments