"සැන් ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ, කැලිෆෝනියා" හි සංශෝධන අතර වෙනස්කම්

සංස්කරණ සාරාංශයක් නොමැත
සුළු (Singhalawap සැන් ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ සිට සැන් ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ, කැලිෆෝනියා දක්වා පිටු ගෙන යන ලදී)
{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}
{{About|කැලිෆෝනියාවේ ගම සහ නගරය​}}
{{Featured article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}{{pp-move-indef}}
{{Infobox settlement
|name = සැන් ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ
'''ශාන්ත ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ''' ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|æ|n|_|f|r|ə|n|ˈ|s|ɪ|s|k|oʊ}}), නිල වශයෙන් '''ශාන්ත ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ ගම සහ නගරය​''', උතුරු කැලිෆෝනියාවේ සහ ශාන්ත ෆ්‍රැන්සිස්කෝ බොක්ක ආශ්‍රිතව ඉදිරියෙන්ම පවතින මූල්‍යමය සහ සංස්කෘතික කේන්‍ද්‍රයයි.
 
== ==
The only [[Consolidated city–county|consolidated city-county]] in California,<ref name="CityCounty"/> San Francisco encompasses a land area of about {{convert|46.9|sqmi|km2}}<ref>{{cite web
{{reflist}}
| url = [http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/files/Gaz_places_national.txt U.S. Census]
| publisher=US Census Bureau
| accessdate =2011
| title = U.S. Census
}}</ref> on the northern end of the [[San Francisco Peninsula]], giving it a density of about 17,179 people per square mile (6,632 people per km<sup>2</sup>). It is the most densely settled large city (population greater than 200,000) in the state of California and the [[List of United States cities by population density|second-most densely populated]] major city in the United States after [[New York City]].<ref name="SF_Population_Density"/> San Francisco is the [[List of cities in California (by population)|fourth most populous city]] in California, after [[Los Angeles]], [[San Diego]] and [[San Jose, CA|San Jose]], and the [[List of United States cities by population|14th most populous city]] in the United States—with a population of 805,235 as of the [[2010 United States Census|2010 Census]]. The city is also the financial and cultural hub of the larger [[San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area|San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland]] metropolitan area, with a population of 7.6 million.
 
San Francisco (Spanish for "Saint Francis") was founded on June 29, 1776, when [[Spanish colonization of the Americas|colonists from Spain]] established [[Presidio of San Francisco|a fort]] at the [[Golden Gate]] and [[Mission San Francisco de Asís|a mission]] named for [[St. Francis of Assisi]] a few miles away.<ref name="DeAnza-Moraga-Palou">{{cite web
| author=Edward F. O'Day
| title = The Founding of San Francisco
| date = October 1926
| url = http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/founding.html
| accessdate =February 14, 2009
| publisher=Spring Valley Water Authority
| work=San Francisco Water
}}</ref> The [[California Gold Rush]] of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the [[West Coast of the United States|West Coast]] at the time. Due to the growth of its population, San Francisco became a [[consolidated city-county]] in 1856.<ref name="Coy 1919 409">{{cite book
| last = Coy
| first = Owen Cochran
| title = Guide to the County Archives of California
| publisher=California Historical Survey Commission
| year = 1919
| location = Sacramento, California
| page = 409
}}</ref>
After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the [[1906 San Francisco earthquake|1906 earthquake and fire]],<ref name="Montagne"/> San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the [[Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)|Panama-Pacific International Exposition]] nine years later. During [[දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය]], San Francisco was the port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the [[Pacific Ocean theater of දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය|Pacific Theater]].<ref name="WWII"/> After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, massive immigration, liberalizing attitudes, and other factors led to the [[Summer of Love]] and the [[LGBT rights in the United States|gay rights]] movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of [[Modern liberalism in the United States|liberal activism in the United States]].
 
Today, San Francisco is one of the top tourist destinations in the world,<ref name="TravelandTourism"/> and is renowned for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, [[San Francisco architecture|eclectic mix of architecture]], and landmarks including the [[Golden Gate Bridge]], [[San Francisco cable car system|cable cars]], the former [[Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary|prison]] on [[Alcatraz Island]], and its [[Chinatown, San Francisco|Chinatown]] district. It is also a primary banking and finance center.
 
== History ==
{{Main|History of San Francisco}}
{{Quote box |width=20em |align=left |bgcolor=#B0C4DE
|title=Historical Affiliations
|fontsize=90% |quote=[[Spanish Empire]] 1776–1821<br>
[[First Mexican Empire]] 1821–1823<br>
[[United Mexican States]] 1823–1848<br>
[[United States]] 1848–present
}}
[[File:Mission San Francisco de Asis old.jpg|thumb|left|[[Mission San Francisco de Asís]] (Mission Dolores)]]The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000&nbsp;BC.<ref>{{cite web
| url=http://www.sonoma.edu/asc/projects/pointreyes/overview2.pdf
| title=Archaeological Research Issues For The Point Reyes National Seashore – Golden Gate National Recreation Area
| accessdate=June 12, 2008
| last=Stewart
| first=Suzanne B.
| year= 2003
| month=November
| format=PDF
| publisher=Sonoma State University – Anthropological Studies Center
}}</ref> The [[Yelamu]] group of the [[Ohlone]] people resided in several small villages when a [[Spanish colonization of the Americas|Spanish exploration party]], led by Don [[Gaspar de Portolà]] arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to [[San Francisco Bay]].<ref name="Portola">{{cite web
| title= Visitors: San Francisco Historical Information
| url= http://sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091
| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20060301022510/http://sfgov.org/site/visitor_index.asp?id=8091
| archivedate= March 1, 2006
| date= n.d.
| accessdate=June 10, 2008
| publisher=City and County of San Francisco
}}</ref> Seven years later, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the [[Presidio of San Francisco]], followed by a [[Spanish Missions of California|mission]], [[Mission San Francisco de Asís]] (Mission Dolores).
 
Upon [[Mexican War of Independence|independence]] from Spain in 1821, the area became part of [[Mexico]]. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became [[Ranchos of California|privatized]]. In 1835, Englishman [[William A. Richardson|William Richardson]] erected the first independent homestead,<ref name="Richardson">{{cite web
| last = The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
| title = From the 1820s to the Gold Rush
| date = July 16, 2004
| url = http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/early.html
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
| publisher=The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
}}</ref> near a boat anchorage around what is today [[Portsmouth Square]]. Together with [[Alcalde]] [[Francisco de Haro]], he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named [[Yerba Buena (town)|Yerba Buena]], began to attract American settlers. Commodore [[John D. Sloat]] claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the [[Mexican-American War]], and Captain [[John B. Montgomery]] arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year,<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.yerbabuenagardens.com/history.html
| title = History of Yerba Buena Gardens
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
| publisher=MJM Management Group
| year = 2004
}}</ref> and Mexico officially [[Mexican Cession|ceded the territory]] to the United States at the [[Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo|end of the war]]. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York | pages = 4–5 | oclc = 44313415
| isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9}}</ref>
 
[[File:SanFrancisco1851a.jpg|thumb|left|[[Portsmouth Square]] in 1851]]The [[California Gold Rush]] brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their [[sourdough|sourdough bread]] in tow,<ref>Sourdough bread was a staple of western explorers and miners of the 19th century. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today.{{cite journal
| last = Tamony
| first = Peter
| title = Sourdough and French Bread
| journal=Western Folklore
| volume = 32
| issue = 4
| pages = 265–270
| publisher=Western States Folklore Society
| year = 1973 |month = October
| accessdate =June 8, 2008
| doi = 10.2307/1498306
}}</ref> prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival [[Benicia, California|Benicia]],<ref>{{cite web
| title = San Francisco's First Brick Building
| publisher=The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
| date = July 16, 2004
| url = http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/brick.html
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.<ref name="1849pop">{{cite book
| last = Richards
| first = Rand
| title = Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide
| publisher=Heritage House
| year = 1992
| isbn = 978-1-879367-00-5
| oclc = 214330849
}}</ref> The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.<ref name="buriedships">{{cite news
| last = Harris | first = Ron
| title = Crews Unearth Shipwreck on San Francisco Condo Project
| agency=Associated Press
| date = November 14, 2005
| url = http://www.constructionequipmentguide.com/story.asp?story=6287&headline=Crews
| accessdate =September 4, 2006
}}</ref> California was quickly [[Compromise of 1850|granted statehood]], and the U.S. military built [[Fort Point, San Francisco|Fort Point]] at the [[Golden Gate]] and a fort on [[Alcatraz Island]] to secure the San Francisco Bay. Silver discoveries, including the [[Comstock Lode]] in 1859, further drove rapid population growth.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York | pages = 31–33 | oclc = 44313415
| isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9
}}</ref> With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the [[Barbary Coast, San Francisco|Barbary Coast]] section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling.<ref>"The miners came in forty-nine, / The whores in fifty-one, / And when they got together / They produced the native son." {{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York
| pages = 237–238 | oclc = 44313415 | isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9}}</ref>
 
Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of [[Wells Fargo]] in 1852 and the [[Bank of California]] in 1864. Development of the [[Port of San Francisco]] and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the Eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed [[First Transcontinental Railroad|Pacific Railroad]] (the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped support<ref>Construction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the [[:File:Pacific RR Bond SF 1865.jpeg|City and County of San Francisco Pacific Railroad Bond issue]] under the provisions of ''"An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto."'' approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the ''"Compromise Act of 1864"'' approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 (''"The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco"'' 25 Cal 635) and 1865 (''"The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs.The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk"'' 27 Cal 655)</ref>) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, [[Levi Strauss]] opened a dry goods business and [[Domingo Ghirardelli]] began manufacturing chocolate. Immigrant laborers made the city a polyglot culture, with [[Han Chinese|Chinese]] railroad workers creating the city's [[Chinatown, San Francisco|Chinatown]] quarter. In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population.<ref name=census>{{cite web|title=Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0076/twps0076.html|accessdate=December 18, 2011}}</ref> The first [[San Francisco cable car system|cable cars]] carried San Franciscans up [[Clay Street Hill Railroad|Clay Street]] in 1873. The city's sea of [[Victorian house]]s began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for [[Golden Gate Park]]. San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]] developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Under Three Flags | work=Golden Gate National Recreation Area Brochures
| publisher=US Department of the Interior
| year = 2004 | month = November
| url = http://www.nps.gov/goga/planyourvisit/upload/3flags_7-03.pdf | format = PDF
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
| accessdate =June 22, 2011
}}</ref> By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the [[Largest cities in the United States by population by decade#1890|eighth largest city]] in the U.S. at the time. Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on [[Nob Hill, San Francisco|Nob Hill]], and a thriving arts scene.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York | pages = 44–55 | oclc = 44313415
| isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9}}</ref> The first North American plague epidemic was the [[San Francisco plague of 1900–1904]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Kalisch |first=Philip A. |title=The Black Death in Chinatown: Plague and Politics in San Francisco 1900–1904 |work=Arizona and the West |volume=14 |number=2 |month=Summer |year=1972 |pages=113–136 |publisher=Journal of the Southwest |url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/40168068}}</ref>
[[File:San francisco fire 1906.jpg|thumb|left|upright=2.5|"Not in history has a modern imperial city been so completely destroyed. San Francisco is gone." –[[Jack London]] after the [[1906 San Francisco earthquake|1906 earthquake]] and fire<ref>{{cite journal
| last = London
| first = Jack
| title = The Story of an Eyewitness by Jack London
| journal=Collier's, the National Weekly
| publisher=The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
| date = May 5, 1906
| url = http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/jlondon.html
| accessdate =August 29, 2006}}</ref>]]
 
At 5:12&nbsp;am on April 18, 1906, a major [[1906 San Francisco earthquake|earthquake struck San Francisco]] and northern California. As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines ignited fires that would spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. With water mains out of service, the [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]] Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks.<ref name="Funston">{{cite web
| title = 1906 Earthquake: Fire Fighting
| work=Golden Gate National Recreation Area
| publisher=US Department of the Interior | date = December 24, 2003
| url = http://www.nps.gov/prsf/historyculture/1906-earthquake-fire-fighting.htm
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core.<ref name="Montagne">{{cite news
| last = Montagne | first = Renée
| title = Remembering the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
| work=People & Places | publisher=National Public Radio
| date = April 11, 2006
| url = http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5334411
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Casualties and Damage after the 1906 earthquake
| work=Earthquake Hazards Program – Northern California
| publisher=US Geological Survey
| date = January 25, 2008
| url = http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/nca/1906/18april/casualties.php
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> More than half the city's population of 400,000 were left homeless.<ref>{{cite web
| title = 1906 Earthquake and the Army
| work=Golden Gate National Recreation Area
| publisher=US Department of the Interior | date =August 25, 2004
| url = http://www.nps.gov/prsf/historyculture/1906-earthquake.htm
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> Refugees settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. Many fled permanently to the [[East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)|East Bay]].
 
[[File:PalaceofFineArts1915.jpg|thumb|left|The [[Palace of Fine Arts]] at the 1915 [[Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)|Panama-Pacific Exposition]]]]
 
Rebuilding was rapid and performed on a grand scale. Rejecting calls to completely remake the street grid, San Franciscans opted for speed.<ref name="NatTrust1">{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York
| pages = 56–62 | oclc = 44313415 | isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9
}}</ref> [[Amadeo Giannini]]'s [[Bank of Italy (USA)|Bank of Italy]], later to become [[Bank of America]], provided loans for many of those whose livelihoods had been devastated. The destroyed mansions of Nob Hill became grand hotels. [[San Francisco City Hall|City Hall]] rose again in splendorous [[Beaux-Arts architecture|Beaux Arts]] style, and the city celebrated its rebirth at the [[Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)|Panama-Pacific International Exposition]] in 1915.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York | oclc = 44313415 | isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9
| page = 9}}</ref>
 
In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital; in the wake of the [[Wall Street Crash of 1929|1929 stock market crash]], not a single San Francisco-based bank failed.<ref>{{cite web
| title = San Francisco Gold Rush Banking – 1849
| publisher=The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
| date = June 24, 2004
| url = http://www.sfmuseum.net/hist9/banking.html
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> Indeed, it was at the height of the [[Great Depression]] that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the [[San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge]] and the [[Golden Gate Bridge]], completing them in 1936 and 1937 respectively. It was in this period that the island of [[Alcatraz Island|Alcatraz]], a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as [[Al Capone]], and [[Robert Franklin Stroud]], The Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a [[Expo (exhibition)|World's Fair]], the [[Golden Gate International Exposition]] in 1939–40, creating [[Treasure Island (California)|Treasure Island]] in the middle of the bay to house it.
 
During දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය, the [[San Francisco Naval Shipyard|Hunters Point Naval Shipyard]] became a hub of activity, and [[Fort Mason]] became the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the [[Pacific Theater of Operations]].<ref name="WWII">{{cite web
| title = Port of Embarkation Essay—දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය in the San Francisco Bay Area
| work=A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary:
| publisher=US Department of the Interior | date = August 28, 2007
| url = http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/wwIIbayarea/embarkation.htm
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
| accessdate =June 22, 2011
}}</ref> The explosion of jobs drew many people, especially African Americans [[Second Great Migration (African American)|from the South]], to the area. After the end of the war, many military personnel returning from service abroad and civilians who had originally come to work decided to stay. The [[United Nations Charter|UN Charter]] creating the UN was drafted and signed in San Francisco in 1945 and, in 1951, the [[Treaty of San Francisco]] officially ended the [[Pacific War|war with Japan]].
 
[[File:USS San Francisco (CA-38) enters San Francisco Bay, December 1942.jpg|thumb|upright|The [[USS San Francisco (CA-38)|USS ''San Francisco'']] steams under the [[Golden Gate Bridge]] in 1942, during World War&nbsp;II.]]
 
Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by [[freeway and expressway revolts#San Francisco|citizen-led opposition]].<ref>{{cite news
| last = Fang
| first = Eric
| title = Urban Renewal Revisited: A Design Critique
| work=SPUR Newsletter
| publisher=San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association
| year = 1999
| month = February
| url = http://www.spur.org/publications/library/article/urbanrenewalrevisited02011999
| accessdate =August 3, 2009
}}</ref> The onset of [[containerization]] made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger [[Port of Oakland]].<ref>{{citation | last = Rubin
| first = Jasper
| title = The Decline of the Port
| subtitle = A look at the transformation of the Port of San Francisco
| work=SPUR Newsletter
| publisher=San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association
| year = 1999
| month = November
| url = http://www.spur.org/publications/library/article/declineofport11011999
| quote = The final, insurmountable decline in San Francisco's shipping activity was heralded in 1958 by the departure of the first containerized freighter from San Francisco Bay.
| accessdate = January 5, 2013
}}</ref> The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy.<ref>{{citation
| last = Terplan
| first = Egon
| title = Organizing for Economic Growth
| subtitle = A new approach to business attraction and retention in San Francisco
| work=SPUR Report
| publisher=San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association
| publishdate = June 7, 2010
| url = http://www.spur.org/publications/library/report/organizing-economic-growth
| quote = During the 1960s and 1970s San Francisco's historic maritime industry relocated to Oakland. ... San Francisco remained a center for business and professional services (such as consulting, law, accounting and finance) and also successfully developed its tourism sector, which became the leading local industry.
| accessdate = January 5, 2013
}}</ref> The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of [[Immigration to the United States|immigration]] from Asia and Latin America.<ref>{{cite web
| last = Willis | first = James
| coauthors = Habib, Jerry, Brittan, Jeremy
| title = San Francisco Planning Department Census Data Analysis
| publisher=San Francisco State University
| date = April 19, 2004
| url = http://bss.sfsu.edu/pamuk/SFDemographics.ppt
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20110718191827/http://bss.sfsu.edu/pamuk/SFDemographics.ppt
| archivedate = July 18, 2011
| format = PPT | accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
| last = Minton | first = Torri
| title = Race Through Time
| work=San Francisco Chronicle
| page = SC-4
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = September 20, 1998
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1998/09/20/SC72759.DTL
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population.
 
Over this period, San Francisco became a magnet for America's counterculture. [[Beat Generation]] writers fueled the [[San Francisco Renaissance]] and centered on the [[North Beach, San Francisco|North Beach]] neighborhood in the 1950s.<ref>{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York
| pages = 240–242 | oclc = 44313415 | isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9
}}</ref> [[Hippie]]s flocked to [[Haight-Ashbury]] in the 1960s, reaching a peak with the 1967 [[Summer of Love]].<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/filmmore/fd.html
| title = American Experience: Summer of Love: Film Description
| accessdate =June 17, 2008
| date = March 14, 2007
| work=Website for American Experience documentary on the Summer of Love
| publisher=PBS
}}</ref> In 1974, the [[Zebra murders]] left at least 16 people dead.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,911212,00.html |title=Fear in the Streets of San Francisco |date=1974-04-29 |work=Time |accessdate = August 28, 2006 |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/5bezpRhy4 |archivedate = October 18, 2008}}</ref> In the 1970s, the city became a center of the [[LGBT social movements|gay rights movement]], with the emergence of [[The Castro, San Francisco|The Castro]] as an urban [[gay village]], the election of [[Harvey Milk]] to the [[San Francisco Board of Supervisors|Board of Supervisors]], and his [[Moscone-Milk assassinations|assassination]], along with that of Mayor [[George Moscone]], in 1978.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.frommers.com/destinations/sanfrancisco/0029033660.html
| title = San Francisco History: The 1970s and 1980s: Gay Rights
| accessdate =June 17, 2008
| work=Destinations: San Francisco
| publisher=Frommers.com |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070612230434/http://www.frommers.com/destinations/sanfrancisco/0029033660.html |archivedate = June 12, 2007}}</ref>
 
Bank of America completed [[555 California Street]] in 1969 and the [[Transamerica Pyramid]] was completed in 1972,<ref>{{cite web
| title = Pyramid Facts and Figures | work=Company Profile
| publisher=Transamerica Insurance and Investment Group
| url = http://www.transamerica.com/company_profile/about_the_pyramid/pyramid_facts_and_figures.asp
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> igniting a wave of "[[Manhattanization]]" that lasted until the late 1980s, a period of extensive high-rise development downtown.<ref name="NatTrust2">{{cite book
| last = Wiley | first = Peter Booth
| title = National trust guide- San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers
| publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year = 2000 | location = New York
| pages = 95–96 | oclc = 44313415 | isbn = 978-0-471-19120-9
}}</ref> The 1980s also saw a dramatic increase in the number of homeless people in the city, an issue that remains today, despite many attempts to address it.<ref>{{cite news
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/08/04/MNGILKB9KV1.DTL&ao=all
| title = S.F.'s Homeless Aging on the Street / Chronic health problems on the rise as median age nears 50
| publisher = ''San Francisco Chronicle''
| author = Fagan, Kevin
| date = August 4, 2006
| accessdate =March 6, 2012
| quote = The findings support what many social workers have long suspected &ndash; that there was a "big bang" homeless population explosion as federal housing programs were slashed and the closing of mental hospitals hit home in the mid-1980s and that this core group constitutes the bulk of the street population.
}}</ref> The 1989 [[Loma Prieta earthquake]] caused destruction and loss of life throughout the Bay Area. In San Francisco, the quake severely damaged structures in the [[Marina District, San Francisco|Marina]] and [[South of Market, San Francisco|South of Market]] districts and precipitated the demolition of the damaged [[California State Route 480|Embarcadero Freeway]] and much of the damaged [[Central Freeway]], allowing the city to reclaim its historic downtown waterfront and revitalizing the [[Hayes Valley, San Francisco|Hayes Valley]] neighborhood.
 
During the [[Dot-com bubble|dot-com boom]] of the late 1990s, [[startup company|startup companies]] invigorated the economy. Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly [[gentrified]].<ref>{{cite news
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/05/us/mission-district-fights-case-of-dot-com-fever.html
| title = Mission District Fights Case of Dot-Com Fever
| publisher = ''The New York Times''
| date = November 5, 2000
| author = Nieves, Evelyn
| accessdate =March 5, 2012
}}</ref> Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time South of Market.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.sfgate.com/default/article/High-rises-are-a-sign-of-the-times-in-changing-3233641.php
| title = High-rises are a sign of the times in changing San Francisco
| publisher = ''San Francisco Chronicle''
| date = January 2, 2008
| author = Nolte, Carl
| accessdate = July 9, 2012
}}</ref> By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy with the [[Web 2.0|social media boom]] fueling growth in the second decade of the new century.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.sfeconomicstrategy.org/site/uploadedfiles/moed/economic_strat/ExecutiveSummary_EconomicPerformanceReview.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20090201053456/http://www.sfeconomicstrategy.org/site/uploadedfiles/moed/economic_strat/ExecutiveSummary_EconomicPerformanceReview.pdf
| archivedate = February 1, 2009
| title = City and County of San Francisco: An Overview of San Francisco’s Recent Economic Performance
| accessdate =June 19, 2008
| author=Ted Egan
| date = April 3, 2006
| format = PDF
| work=Report prepared for Mayor’s Office of Economic and Workforce Development
| publisher=ICF Consulting
| quote = Another positive trend for the future is San Francisco’s highly entrepreneurial, flexible and innovative economy...San Francisco’s very high reliance on small business and self-employment is typical of other dynamic, fast-growing, high-technology areas across the country.}}</ref>
 
== Geography ==
[[File:San Francisco Landsat7 Lg.jpg|right|upright|thumb|The San Francisco Peninsula]]
 
San Francisco is located on the [[West Coast of the United States]] at the north end of the [[San Francisco Peninsula]] and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and [[San Francisco Bay]] within its boundaries. Several [[islands of San Francisco Bay|islands]]—[[Alcatraz Island|Alcatraz]], [[Treasure Island, California|Treasure Island]] and the adjacent [[Yerba Buena Island]], and small portions of [[Alameda, California|Alameda Island]], [[Red Rock Island]], and [[Angel Island, California|Angel Island]]<!--Alameda island is capitalized correctly; "island" is not part of the proper noun and is uses here to distinguish the island from the municipality, which also includes of Bay Farm Island, Balena Bay, Coast Guard Island, etc. -->—are part of the city. Also included are the uninhabited [[Farallon Islands]], {{convert|27|mi|km}} offshore in the Pacific Ocean. The mainland within the city limits roughly forms a "seven-by-seven-mile square," a common local colloquialism referring to the city's shape, though its total area, including water, is nearly {{convert|232|sqmi|km2}}.
 
[[File:Lombardst.jpeg|thumb|upright|left|Cars navigate [[Lombard Street (San Francisco)|Lombard Street]] to descend [[Russian Hill, San Francisco|Russian Hill]].]]
San Francisco is famous for [[List of hills in San Francisco|its hills]].
There are more than 50 hills within city limits.<ref name=peak_experience>{{cite news
| last = Graham | first = Tom
| title = Peak Experience
| work = San Francisco Chronicle
| page = PK-23
| publisher = Hearst Communications
| date = November 7, 2004
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/11/07/PKGJ99K7KD1.DTL
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref> Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including [[Nob Hill, San Francisco|Nob Hill]], [[Potrero Hill, San Francisco|Potrero Hill]], and [[Russian Hill, San Francisco|Russian Hill]].
Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. [[Twin Peaks (San Francisco)|Twin Peaks]], a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms a popular overlook spot. San Francisco's tallest hill, [[Mount Davidson (California)|Mount Davidson]], is {{convert|925|ft|m|0}} high and is capped with a {{convert|103|foot|m|0|adj=on}} tall cross built in 1934.<ref>{{cite news
| first=Henry K. | last = Lee
| title = Mount Davidson Cross Called Landmark by Panel
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1997/01/16/MN71385.DTL
|work=San Francisco Chronicle
| date = January 16, 1997
| accessdate =June 17, 2008}}</ref> Dominating this area is [[Sutro Tower]], a large red and white radio and television transmission tower.
 
The nearby [[San Andreas Fault|San Andreas]] and [[Hayward Fault]]s are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. The city constructed an [[San Francisco Fire Department Auxiliary Water Supply System|auxiliary water supply system]] and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction.<ref>{{cite news
| first = Charles | last = Smith
| title = What San Francisco didn't learn from the '06 quake
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/04/15/HOGQ9I7P2T1.DTL
|work=San Francisco Chronicle
| date = April 15, 2006
| accessdate =June 30, 2008
}}</ref> However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage.<ref>{{cite news
| first = Robert | last = Selna
| title = S.F. leaders ignore weak buildings' quake risk
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2008/06/29/MNDD110U2E.DTL
| page = A-1 |work=San Francisco Chronicle
| date = June 29, 2008
| accessdate =June 30, 2008}}</ref>
 
San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the [[Marina District, San Francisco|Marina]], [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]], and [[Hunters Point, San Francisco|Hunters Point]], as well as large sections of the [[The Embarcadero (San Francisco)|Embarcadero]], sit on areas of [[Landfill#Land reclamation|landfill]]. [[Treasure Island, California|Treasure Island]] was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from tunneling through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. The resulting [[Earthquake liquefaction|liquefaction]] causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the [[1989 Loma Prieta earthquake]].<ref>{{cite web
| title = Liquefaction Damage in the Marina District during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
| publisher=California Geological Survey
| url = http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/information/outreach/Documents/Marina%20Poster%2011x17rw2b.pdf
| format = PDF
| accessdate =June 17, 2008}}</ref> Most of the city's natural watercourses, such as [[Islais Creek]] and [[Mission Creek]], have been culverted and built over, although the [[San Francisco Public Utilities Commission|Public Utilities Commission]] is studying proposals to daylight or restore some creeks.<ref>{{cite web
| title = The Lure of the Creeks Buried Beneath San Francisco’s Streets
| publisher = Streetsblog San Francisco
| author = Matt Baume
| url = http://sf.streetsblog.org/2010/04/14/the-lure-of-the-creeks-buried-beneath-san-franciscos-streets/
| date = April 14, 2010
| accessdate = January 31, 2013}}
</ref>
 
===Climate===
{{climate chart
| San Francisco
|46.2|56.9|4.5
|48.1|60.2|4.61
|49.1|62.9|3.26
|49.9|64.3|1.46
|51.6|65.6|0.7
|53.3|67.9|0.16
|54.6|68.2|0
|55.6|69.4|0.06
|55.7|71.3|0.21
|54.3|70.4|1.13
|50.7|63.2|3.16
|46.7|57.3|4.56
|float=right
|clear=none
|units=imperial}}
A popular quote incorrectly attributed to [[Mark Twain]] is "The coldest winter I ever spent was a summer in San Francisco".<ref name="marktwain">{{cite news
| last = Nolte | first = Carl
| title = Fog Heaven: The sun will come out tomorrow. Or maybe not. It's summer in the city, and that means gray skies
| work=San Francisco Chronicle
| page = A-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = August 19, 2005
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/08/19/MNGOBEA9JI1.DTL&ao=all
| accessdate =June 13, 2008
}}</ref><ref>{{cite web
| title = And Never the Twain Shall Tweet
| work=Urban Legends Reference Pages
| publisher=Snopes.com
| date = September 26, 2007
| url = http://www.snopes.com/quotes/twain.asp
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/618iAAceB |archivedate = August 22, 2011| deadurl=no}}</ref> San Francisco's climate is characteristic of the cool-summer [[Mediterranean climate]]<ref>Also known as Dry-Summer [[Subtropical]] ([[Köppen climate classification]] ''Csb'')</ref> of California’s coast, "generally characterized by moist mild winters and dry summers".<ref>[http://ggweather.com/sf/narrative.html Climate of San Francisco: Narrative Description] Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved September 5, 2006.</ref> Since it is surrounded on three sides by water, San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the [[California Current|cool currents]] of the Pacific Ocean, which moderate temperature swings and produce a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation.
 
[[File:San francisco in fog with rays.jpg|upright|thumb|left|[[San Francisco fog|Fog]] is a regular feature of San Francisco summers.]]
Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coldest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.currentresults.com/Weather-Extremes/US/coldest-cities-summer.php
| title = Coolest US Cities in Summer
| author=Osborn, Liz
| publisher=Current Results Nexus
| work=Weather Extremes
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVdBgvSs |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref>
During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the [[North Pacific High]] through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's [[San Francisco fog generation|characteristic cool winds and fog]].<ref>{{Citation
| last = Gilliam
| first = Harold
| author-link = Harold Gilliam
| title = Cutting Through the Fog: Demystifying the Summer Spectacle
| journal=Bay Nature
| date = July–September, 2002
| url = http://baynature.org/articles/jul-sep-2002/cutting-through-the-fog }}</ref> The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall, which is the warmest time of the year.
 
Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct [[microclimate]]s. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the [[Sunset District, San Francisco|Sunset District]]; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year.
 
Temperatures exceed {{convert|75|°F|°C|abbr=on}} on average only 28&nbsp;days a year.<ref name="Weatherbase">{{cite web
| url = http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=149427&refer=
| title = Weatherbase: Historical Weather for San Francisco, California. Summary of weather data.
| publisher=weatherbase.com}}</ref> The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with average high temperatures of {{convert|64|–|71|F|C}} and lows of {{convert|51|–|56|F|C}}. The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with high temperatures of {{convert|58|–|64|F|C}} and lows of {{convert|46|–|51|F|C}}. On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages {{convert|23.6|in|mm|2}}. Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to {{convert|5|in}} fell on Twin Peaks.<ref>[http://ggweather.com/sf/snow.html Climate of San Francisco: Snowfall] Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved December 3, 2006.</ref><ref>{{cite web
| url = http://blog.sfgate.com/thebigevent/2012/11/29/blizzard-of-awesome-the-san-francisco-snowfall-of-1976/
| title = Blizzard of awesome: The San Francisco snowfall of 1976
| author = Peter Hartlaub
| publisher = SFGate.com
| date = November 29, 2012
| accessdate = February 1, 2013}}</ref> A dusting of snow occurred on Twin Peaks in 2011.<ref>{{cite news
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27snow.html
| title = Snow Falls on San Francisco After a 35-Year Wait
| author = Jesse McKinley |publisher=The New York Times
| date = February 26, 2011
| accessdate = February 1, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
| url = http://www.nbcnews.com/id/41793089/ns/42555888
| title = San Francisco 'snow' not enough to count
| publisher = msnbc.com
| date = February 26, 2011
| accessdate = February 1, 2013}}</ref>
 
The highest recorded temperature at the official [[National Weather Service]] office was {{convert|103|F|C}} on July 17, 1988, and June 14, 2000. The lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|27|F|C}} on December 11, 1932.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliGCStT.pl?ca7772
| title = San Fran Mission Dolore, California (047772) Period of Record General Climate Summary – Temperature
| work=Western Regional Climate Center
| publisher=[[Desert Research Institute]]
| year = 2010
| accessdate =July 25, 2010| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVcxMBua |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}} ([http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?ca7772 Main page])</ref> The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid<ref>http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/climate/yeardisp.php?wfo=mtr&stn=KSFO&submit=Yearly+Charts San Francisco Bay Area / Monterey</ref> graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.
 
{{San Francisco weatherbox}}
 
==Cityscape==
{{Wide image|SanFrancisco from TwinPeaks dusk MC.jpg|1680px|<center>Downtown San Francisco, seen from [[Twin Peaks (San Francisco, California)|Twin Peaks]] shortly before sunset in October 2006.</center>}}
 
===Neighborhoods===
[[File:SF Chinatown CA.jpg|thumb|right|upright|San Francisco's [[Chinatown, San Francisco|Chinatown]] is the oldest and one of the largest in North America.]]
{{Main|Neighborhoods in San Francisco}}{{See also|List of tallest buildings in San Francisco}}
The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by [[Market Street (San Francisco)|Market Street]] and the waterfront. It is here that the [[Financial District, San Francisco|Financial District]] is centered, with [[Union Square (San Francisco)|Union Square]], the principal shopping and hotel district, nearby. [[Cable car (railway)|Cable cars]] carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of [[Nob Hill]], once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of [[Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco|Fisherman's Wharf]], and [[Pier 39]], where many restaurants feature [[Dungeness crab]] from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are [[Russian Hill, San Francisco|Russian Hill]], a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked [[Lombard Street (San Francisco)|Lombard Street]]; [[North Beach, San Francisco|North Beach]], the city's [[Little Italy]] and the former center of the [[Beat Generation]]; and [[Telegraph Hill, San Francisco|Telegraph Hill]], which features [[Coit Tower]]. Between Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's [[Chinatown, San Francisco|Chinatown]], the oldest [[Chinatown]] in North America.<ref>[http://www.sanfranciscochinatown.com/history/index.html The Official San Francisco Chinatown Website]. Sanfranciscochinatown.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-16.</ref><ref>[http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/csj/101102/chinatown.shtml Depicting Otherness: Images of San Francisco's Chinatown]. College Street Journal (October 11, 2002). Retrieved on 2012-02-16.</ref><ref name="Bacon, Daniel pages 52-53">Bacon, Daniel: Walking the Barbary Coast Trail 2nd ed., pp. 52–53, Quicksilver Press, 1997</ref><ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20110615053119/http://www.sanfranciscodays.com/chinatown/ Chinatown/Grant Avenue]. San Francisco Days</ref> The [[South of Market, San Francisco|South of Market]], which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the addition of [[AT&T Park]] and an infusion of [[Startup company|startup companies]]. New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]], a former railyard now anchored by a second campus of the [[University of California, San Francisco]].
 
West of downtown, across [[Van Ness Avenue (San Francisco)|Van Ness Avenue]], lies the large [[Western Addition, San Francisco|Western Addition]] neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after [[දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය]]. The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including [[Hayes Valley, San Francisco, California|Hayes Valley]], [[Fillmore District, San Francisco, California|the Fillmore]], and [[Japantown, San Francisco|Japantown]], which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its [[Japanese American]] residents were [[Japanese American internment|forcibly removed and interned]] during දෙවන ලෝක යුද්ධය. The Western Addition survived the [[1906 San Francisco earthquake|1906 earthquake]] with its [[Victorian house|Victorians]] largely intact, including the famous "[[Painted Ladies]]", standing alongside [[Alamo Square]]. To the south, near the geographic center of the city is [[Haight-Ashbury]], famously associated with 1960s [[hippie]] culture. The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques<ref>{{cite news | title=The Haight | work=SFGate San Francisco Neighborhood Guide | work=The San Francisco Chronicle | url=http://www.sfgate.com/neighborhoods/sf/haight/ | accessdate=August 3, 2009}}</ref> and a few controversial chain stores,<ref>{{cite news | first=Katherine | last=Bishop | title=Haight-Ashbury Journal; Love and Hate Linger In Ex-Hippie District | url=http://www.nytimes.com/1988/10/13/us/haight-ashbury-journal-love-and-hate-linger-in-ex-hippie-district.html?sec=&spon= |work=New York Times | date=October 13, 1988 | accessdate=August 3, 2009}}</ref> although it still retains some [[Bohemianism|bohemian]] character. North of the Western Addition is [[Pacific Heights, San Francisco|Pacific Heights]], a wealthy neighborhood that features the mansions built by the San Francisco business elite in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the [[Marina District, San Francisco|Marina]], a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay.<ref>{{cite news
| title = The Marina
| work=SFGate San Francisco Neighborhood Guide
|work=San Francisco Chronicle
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/traveler/guide/sf/neighborhoods/marina.shtml
| accessdate =June 27, 2008
| accessdate =June 22, 2011
| deadurl=yes}} {{Dead link|date=August 2012|bot=RjwilmsiBot}}</ref>
 
In the south-east quadrant of the city is the [[Mission District]]—populated in the 19th century by [[Californio]]s and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from [[Mexican American|Mexico]] began to predominate.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.qualityoflife-themovie.com/website/mission.html | title=Quality of Life (film website) | work=Mission District History | author=Morgan, Benjamin (Director) | year=2007 | accessdate=July 25, 2010}}</ref> In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to [[Twentysomething (term)|twenty-something]] professionals living the [[hipster (contemporary subculture)|hipster]] lifestyle. [[Noe Valley, San Francisco|Noe Valley]] to the southwest and [[Bernal Heights, San Francisco|Bernal Heights]] to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the [[Potrero Hill]] neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as [[Eureka Valley (San Francisco)|Eureka Valley]], now popularly called [[The Castro, San Francisco|the Castro]], was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first and best known [[gay village]], and is now the center of [[homosexuality|gay]] life in the city.<ref>{{cite news | title=The Castro | work=SFGate San Francisco Neighborhood Guide | work=The San Francisco Chronicle | url=http://www.sfgate.com/neighborhoods/sf/castro/ | accessdate=August 3, 2009}}</ref> Located near the city's southern border, the [[Excelsior District, San Francisco|Excelsior District]] is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominately African American [[Hunters Point, San Francisco|Bayview-Hunters Point]] in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of controversial plans for [[urban renewal]].
 
The construction of the [[Twin Peaks Tunnel]] in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of [[West Portal, San Francisco|West Portal]], and nearby affluent [[Forest Hill, San Francisco|Forest Hill]] and [[St. Francis Wood, San Francisco|St. Francis Wood]]. Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to [[Golden Gate Park]] lies the vast [[Sunset District, San Francisco|Sunset District]], a large middle class area with a predominantly Asian population.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Chow | first = Andrew
| title = Dismal APA Turnout at First Redistricting Meetings
| publisher=Asian Week
| date = March 22, 2002
}}</ref>
The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the [[Richmond District, San Francisco|Richmond]], also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many [[Russian people|Russian]] and [[Ukrainian people|Ukrainian]] immigrants. Together, these areas are known as [[Neighborhoods in San Francisco|The Avenues]]. These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.
 
===Beaches and parks===
{{See also|List of parks in San Francisco}}
[[File:SF Conservatory of Flowers 3.jpg|thumb|The [[Conservatory of Flowers]] in [[Golden Gate Park]]]]
Several of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional [[Golden Gate National Recreation Area]], one of the most visited units of the [[National Park Service|National Park system]] in the United States with over 13&nbsp;million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are [[Ocean Beach (San Francisco)|Ocean Beach]], which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant [[surfing]] community, and [[Baker Beach]], which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]], a former military base. Also within the Presidio is [[Crissy Field]], a former airfield that was restored to its natural [[salt marsh]] [[ecosystem]]. The GGNRA also administers [[Fort Funston]], [[Lands End, San Francisco|Lands End]], [[Fort Mason]], and [[Alcatraz]]. The National Park Service separately administers the [[San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park]] – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around [[Aquatic Park Historic District|Aquatic Park]].
 
There are more than [[List of parks in San Francisco|200 parks]] maintained by the San Francisco Recreation and Parks Department.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://sf-recpark.org/index.aspx?page=56
| title = Facility Listings
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
| work=San Francisco Recreation and Parks Department
| publisher=City and County of San Francisco| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVVz5G7d |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref> The largest and best-known city park is [[Golden Gate Park]],<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/ccpe_Most_Visited_Parks.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20090318011047/http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/ccpe_Most_Visited_Parks.pdf
| archivedate = March 18, 2009
| format = PDF
| title = The Most Visited City Parks
| accessdate =June 17, 2008
| date = October 11, 2007
| work=Center for City Park Excellence
| publisher=The Trust for Public Land
}}</ref> which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the [[Conservatory of Flowers]], [[Japanese tea garden at Golden Gate Park|Japanese Tea Garden]] and [[San Francisco Botanical Garden]]. [[Lake Merced]] is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the [[San Francisco Zoo]], a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered.<ref>{{cite web
| title = What to See at the Zoo
| publisher=San Francisco Zoo
| url = http://www.sfzoo.org/openrosters/ViewOrgPageLink.asp?LinkKey=15015&orgkey=1821
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20110719005811/http://www.sfzoo.org/openrosters/ViewOrgPageLink.asp?LinkKey=15015&orgkey=1821
| archivedate = July 19, 2011
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> The only [[List of California state parks|park]] managed by the [[California Department of Parks and Recreation|California State Park]] system located principally in San Francisco, [[Candlestick Point State Recreation Area|Candlestick Point]] was the state's first urban recreation area.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Candlestick Point SRA
| publisher=California State Parks Department
| url = http://parks.ca.gov/?page_id=519
| accessdate =January 27, 2009}}</ref>
 
==Culture and contemporary life==
{{Main|Culture of San Francisco}}
{{See also|San Francisco in popular culture }}
 
[[File:Fillmore-sidewalk-1.jpg|thumb|right|Boutiques along [[Fillmore Street]] in [[Pacific Heights, San Francisco|Pacific Heights]]]]
 
Although the [[Financial District (San Francisco)|Financial District]], [[Union Square, San Francisco|Union Square]], and [[Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco|Fisherman's Wharf]] are well-known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring [[mixed-use development|mixed-use]] neighborhoods anchored around [[List of streets in San Francisco|central commercial corridors]] to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco was rated "most walkable" city by the website Walkscore.com.<ref>{{cite news
| first = James | last = Temple
| title = S.F. a step ahead as most 'walkable' U.S. city
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/07/16/MN3J11Q3N8.DTL
| page = A-1
|work=San Francisco Chronicle
| date = July 17, 2008
| accessdate =July 18, 2008
}}</ref><ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.walkscore.com/2008/
| title = WalkScore No.1 San Francisco
| accessdate =July 18, 2008
| publisher=Walkscore.com
}}</ref> Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafes and nightlife such as Union Street in [[Cow Hollow, San Francisco|Cow Hollow]], 24th Street in [[Noe Valley, San Francisco|Noe Valley]], Valencia Street in the [[Mission District, San Francisco|Mission]], and Irving Street in the [[Sunset District, San Francisco|Inner Sunset]]. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.<ref name="FogDev">{{cite news
| last = Wach | first = Bonnie
| title = Fog City rises from the funk
| work=USA Today | publisher=Gannett Company, Inc.
| date = October 3, 2003
| url = http://www.usatoday.com/travel/destinations/cityguides/sanfrancisco/worthdoing.htm
| accessdate =September 4, 2006}}{{dead link|date=June 2011}}</ref>
 
[[File:South of Market, San Francisco.jpg|thumb|left|High-rises surround [[Yerba Buena Gardens]], South of Market]]
 
Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled [[information technology]] workers from local startups and nearby [[Silicon Valley]] has attracted [[white-collar worker]]s from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Schwarzer | first = Michelle
| title = San Francisco by the Numbers: Planning After the 2000 Census
| work=SPUR Newsletter | publisher=San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association
| year = 2001 | month = July
| url = http://www.spur.org/documents/010701_article_03.shtm
| archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20050211032911/http://spur.org/documents/010701_article_03.shtm
| archivedate = February 11, 2005
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
}}</ref> Many neighborhoods that were once [[blue-collar]], middle, and lower class have been [[Gentrification|gentrifying]], as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the [[The Embarcadero (San Francisco)|Embarcadero]], including the neighborhoods [[South Beach, San Francisco|South Beach]] and [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]]. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation,<ref>{{cite web
| last = Sadovi | first = Maura Webber
| title = San Francisco's Home Prices Remain Among the Highest in U.S.
| work=Real Estate Journal
|work=The Wall Street Journal
| date = April 12, 2006
| url = http://www.realestatejournal.com/columnists/livingthere/20060412-livingthere.html
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070301092505/http://www.realestatejournal.com/columnists/livingthere/20060412-livingthere.html
| archivedate = March 1, 2007
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref><ref name="MedianIncome">{{cite web
| title = Median Family Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars)
| work=American Community Survey
| publisher=US Census Bureau
| date = August 22, 2007
| url = http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Ranking/2003/R14T160.htm
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080420102803/http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Ranking/2003/R14T160.htm| archivedate = April 20, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite web
| last = Hawn | first = Carleen
| title = It may not feel like it, but your shot at the good life is getting better. Here's why
| work=San Francisco magazine | publisher=Modern Luxury
| year = 2007 |month = March
| url = http://www.sanfran.com/archives/view_story/1068/
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070224105246/http://www.sanfran.com/archives/view_story/1068/
| archivedate = February 24, 2007
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2008 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the second [[List of cities by quality of living|highest quality of living]] of any U.S. city.<ref>"{{cite web
| title = Quality of Living global city rankings – Mercer survey
| work=Mercer Consulting
| year = 2008 |month = June
| url = http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.htm?idContent=1307990
| accessdate =February 23, 2011
}}</ref> However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's [[Central Valley (California)|Central Valley]].<ref name="MiddleClass">{{cite news
| last = Hendricks | first = Tyche
| title = Rich City Poor City: Middle-class neighborhoods are disappearing from the nation's cities, leaving only high- and low-income districts, new study says.
| work=San Francisco Chronicle
| page = A-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = June 22, 2006
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/06/22/MNG6HJIDMM1.DTL
| accessdate =June 14, 2008}}</ref>
 
The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas,<ref name="SFEconomicStrategy">{{cite web
| last = Egan | first = Ted
| title = An Overview of San Francisco's Recent Economic Performance – Executive Summary
| publisher=ICF Consulting
| date = April 3, 2006
| url = http://www.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/moed/economic_strat/ExecutiveSummary_EconomicPerformanceReview.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070710072642/http://www.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/moed/economic_strat/ExecutiveSummary_EconomicPerformanceReview.pdf
| archivedate = July 10, 2007
| format = PDF
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in [[Chinatown, San Francisco|Chinatown]] throughout the city and has transformed the annual [[San Francisco Chinese New Year Festival and Parade|Chinese New Year Parade]] into the largest event of its kind outside China.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Lam | first = Eric
| title = San Francisco Chinese New Year Parade Embroiled in Controversy
| publisher=The Epoch Times
| date = December 22, 2005
| url = http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/5-12-22/36073.html
| accessdate =June 14, 2008}}</ref>
 
[[File:Castro Rainbow Flag.jpg|thumb|upright|right| The [[Rainbow flag (LGBT movement)|rainbow flag]], symbol of [[LGBT]] pride, originated in San Francisco; banners like this one decorate streets in [[The Castro, San Francisco|The Castro]].]]
 
With the arrival of the [[Beat Generation|"beat"]] writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the [[Summer of Love]] in the [[Haight-Ashbury]] district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of [[Modern liberalism in the United States|liberal]] activism, with [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]] and [[Green Party (United States)|Greens]] dominating [[Politics of San Francisco|city politics]]. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] presidential or senatorial candidate since [[United States presidential election, 1988|1988]].<ref>{{cite web
| last = Leip | first = Dave
| title = Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections
| publisher=Dave Leip
| date = June 4, 2008
| url = http://www.uselectionatlas.org/
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> In 2007, the city expanded its [[Medicaid]] and other [[indigent]] medical programs into the "[[Healthy San Francisco]]" program,<ref>[http://www.californiahealthline.org/articles/2011/4/19/reform-law-could-curb-healthy-san-franciscos-enrollment-by-up-to-60.aspx Reform Law Could Curb Healthy San Francisco's Enrollment by Up to 60% – California Healthline]. Californiahealthline.org. Retrieved on 2012-02-16.</ref> which [[subsidy|subsidizes]] certain medical services for eligible residents.<ref>[http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1207599,00.html "San Francisco's Latest Innovation: Universal Health Care"], by Laura A. Locke, ''Time'', June 23, 2006</ref><ref>[http://www.healthysanfrancisco.org/visitors/Participant_Costs.aspx "Participant Costs"], healthysanfrancisco.org. Retrieved April 10, 2010.</ref><ref>[http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/west/2006/07/20/70664.htm "Universal Health Care Plan Approved in San Francisco"], ''Insurance Journal'', July 20, 2006.</ref>
 
San Francisco has long had an [[LGBT]]-friendly history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, [[Daughters of Bilitis]]; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the U.S., [[José Sarria]]; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in the U.S., [[Harvey Milk]]; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., [[Mary C. Morgan]]; and the first [[transgender]] police commissioner, [[Theresa Sparks]]. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts [[San Francisco Pride]], one of the largest and oldest [[pride parades]].
 
===Entertainment and performing arts===
{{Main|List of theatres in San Francisco}}
 
[[File:SFWMOHLobbySouth.jpg|thumb|left|The lobby of the [[War Memorial Opera House (San Francisco)|War Memorial Opera House]], one of the last buildings erected in [[Beaux-Arts architecture|Beaux Arts]] style in the United States]]
San Francisco's [[San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center|War Memorial and Performing Arts Center]] hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the U.S. The [[War Memorial Opera House]] houses the [[San Francisco Opera]], the second-largest opera company in North America<ref>The San Francisco Opera is second in size only to New York City's [[Metropolitan Opera]]</ref> as well as the [[San Francisco Ballet]], while the [[San Francisco Symphony]] plays in [[Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall|Davies Symphony Hall]]. The [[Herbst Theatre]] stages an eclectic mix of music performances, as well as [[National Public Radio|public radio]]'s ''[[City Arts & Lectures]].''
 
[[The Fillmore]] is a music venue located in the [[Western Addition, San Francisco|Western Addition]]. It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s under concert promoter [[Bill Graham (promoter)|Bill Graham]], housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the [[Grateful Dead]], [[Janis Joplin]], [[Led Zeppelin]] and [[Jefferson Airplane]] first performed, fostering the [[San Francisco Sound]]. ''[[Beach Blanket Babylon]]'' is a zany musical revue and a civic institution that has performed to sold-out crowds in [[North Beach, San Francisco|North Beach]] since 1974.
 
The [[American Conservatory Theater]] (A.C.T.) has been a force in Bay Area performing arts since its arrival in San Francisco in 1967, regularly staging productions. San Francisco frequently hosts national touring productions of Broadway theatre shows in a number of vintage 1920s-era venues in the [[Theater District, San Francisco|Theater District]] including the [[List of theatres in San Francisco|Curran]], [[List of theatres in San Francisco|Orpheum]], and [[List of theatres in San Francisco|Golden Gate]] Theatres.
[[File:San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2011.jpg|thumb|The red brick and central circular structure of the [[San Francisco Museum of Modern Art]] as seen from [[Yerba Buena Gardens]]. The [[Art Deco]]-style [[PacBell Building]] (1925) rises behind the museum.]]
 
===Museums===
{{Main|List of museums in San Francisco}}
 
The [[San Francisco Museum of Modern Art]] (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the [[South of Market, San Francisco|South of Market]] neighborhood in 1995 and now attracts more than 600,000 visitors annually.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Corporate Sponsorship – Why Sponsor
| publisher=San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
| url = http://www.sfmoma.org/membership/corp_sponsors_why_sponsor.html
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
|archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071229011210/http://www.sfmoma.org/membership/corp_sponsors_why_sponsor.html |archivedate = December 29, 2007}}</ref> The [[California Palace of the Legion of Honor|Palace of the Legion of Honor]] holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its [[Lincoln Park (San Francisco)|Lincoln Park]] building modeled after its [[Palais de la Légion d'Honneur|Parisian namesake]]. It is administered by [[Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco]], which also operates the [[M. H. de Young Memorial Museum|de Young Museum]] in Golden Gate Park. The de Young's collection features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas. Prior to construction of its current copper-clad structure, completed in 2005, the de Young also housed the [[Asian Art Museum of San Francisco|Asian Art Museum]], which, with artifacts from over 6,000&nbsp;years of history across Asia, moved into the former [[San Francisco Public Library|public library]] next to [[Civic Center, San Francisco|Civic Center]] in 2003.
 
Opposite the [[Music Concourse]] from the de Young stands the [[California Academy of Sciences]], a [[natural history]] museum that also hosts the [[Morrison Planetarium]] and [[Steinhart Aquarium]]. Its current structure, featuring a [[living roof]], is an example of [[sustainable architecture]] and opened in 2008. The [[Palace of Fine Arts]], built originally for the [[Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)|1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition]], has since 1969 housed the [[Exploratorium]], an interactive science museum.
 
===Media===
{{Main|Media in San Francisco}}
The major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the ''[[San Francisco Chronicle]]'', which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Top 200 Newspapers by Largest Reported Circulation
| publisher=Audit Bureau of Circulations
| url = http://www.accessabc.com/products/top200.htm
| date = March 31, 2007
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070813073544/http://www.accessabc.com/products/top200.htm
| archivedate= August 13, 2007
| accessdate =June 14, 2008}}</ref> The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late [[Herb Caen]], whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The ''[[San Francisco Examiner]]'', once the cornerstone of [[William Randolph Hearst]]'s media empire and the home of [[Ambrose Bierce]], declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Rosenberg | first = Scott
| title = The San Francisco Examiner, 1887–2000
| publisher=Salon.com | date = March 21, 2000
| url = http://archive.salon.com/media/feature/2000/03/21/examiner/index.html
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20090627064603/http://archive.salon.com/media/feature/2000/03/21/examiner/index.html
| archivedate = June 27, 2009
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
| last = Nolte | first = Carl
| title = Examiner Staff Ends an Era With Tears, Newsroom Tales
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = A-1 | publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = November 22, 2000
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2000/11/22/MN121380.DTL&hw=san+francisco+examiner&sn=005&sc=498
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> ''[[Sing Tao Daily]]'' claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Hua | first = Vanessa
| title = Newspaper war in the Bay Area: Ming Pao becomes 6th Chinese-language daily
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = B-1 | publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = August 3, 2004
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/08/03/BAGI781MM91.DTL
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> [[Alternative weekly]] newspapers include the ''[[San Francisco Bay Guardian]]'' and ''[[SF Weekly|SF&nbsp;Weekly]]''. ''[[San Francisco Magazine]]'' and ''[[7x7 Magazine|7x7]]'' are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine ''[[Mother Jones (magazine)|Mother Jones]]'' is also based in San Francisco.
 
The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest [[designated market area|TV&nbsp;market]]<ref>{{cite web
| title = Local Television Market Universe Estimates
| publisher=Nielsen Media | date = September 22, 2007
| url = http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/nmr_static/docs/2007-2008_DMA_Ranks.xls
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070927200433/http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/nmr_static/docs/2007-2008_DMA_Ranks.xls
| archivedate = September 27, 2007
| format = XLS | accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> and the fourth-largest [[designated market area|radio market]]<ref>{{cite web
| title = Arbitron Radio Market Rankings: Spring 2008
| publisher=Arbitron
| date = April 16, 2008
| url = http://www.arbitron.com/radio_stations/mm001050.asp
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5Qlkb2wW6 |archivedate = August 1, 2007| deadurl=no}}</ref> in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, [[KCBS (AM)]], began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909. [[KALW]] was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. All major U.S. television networks have [[List of television stations in the San Francisco Bay Area|affiliates]] serving the region, with most of them based in the city. There also are several unaffiliated stations, and [[BBC]], [[CNN]] and [[ESPN]] have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. The city's first television station was [[KPIX]], which began broadcasting in 1948.
 
[[Public broadcasting]] outlets include both a [[KQED-TV|television station]] and a [[KQED-FM|radio station]], both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the [[Potrero Hill, San Francisco|Potrero Hill]] neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to [[National Public Radio]] affiliate in the country.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers – Winter 2004 Arbitron
| work=Radio Research Consortium
| publisher=Arbitron Media Research
| date = June 17, 2004
| url = http://www.pacifica.org/documents/pdf/ArbitronRatingsWinter2004.pdf | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20050423215537/http://www.pacifica.org/documents/pdf/ArbitronRatingsWinter2004.pdf | archivedate = April 23, 2005 | format = PDF
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> San Francisco–based [[CNET Networks|CNET]] and [[Salon.com]] pioneered the use of the Internet as a media outlet.
 
===Sports and recreation===
{{Main|Sports in San Francisco}}
The [[San Francisco 49ers]] of the [[National Football League]] (NFL) are the longest-tenured major professional sports franchise in the city. The team began play in 1946 as an [[All-America Football Conference]] (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into [[Candlestick Park]] in 1971. In 2006, the team's owners announced plans to move the team to nearby [[Santa Clara, California]] by 2015; the team will still be named the "San Francisco 49ers", even though they will be much closer to the city of [[San Jose, California|San Jose]].<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/11/09/BAGNJM99FK1.DTL |title=SAN FRANCISCO / 49ers say they are moving to Santa Clara |publisher=Sfgate.com |date=November 9, 2006 |accessdate=March 28, 2012 |first1=Phillip |last1=Matier |first2=Andrew |last2=Ross}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pressdemocrat.com/article/20111206/WIRE/111209685 |title=San Francisco mayor: 49ers move to Santa Clara all but assured |publisher=PressDemocrat.com |date=December 6, 2011 |accessdate=March 28, 2012}}</ref> The 49ers have won five [[Super Bowl]] titles in the 1980s and 1990s behind coaches [[Bill Walsh (American football coach)|Bill Walsh]] and [[George Seifert]], and stars such as [[Joe Montana]], [[Steve Young (athlete)|Steve Young]], [[Ronnie Lott]], and [[Jerry Rice]].
 
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:ATT Panorama07.jpeg|thumb|left|AT&T Park.]] -->
[[Major League Baseball]]'s [[San Francisco Giants]] left New York for California prior to the 1958 season. Though boasting such stars as [[Willie Mays]], [[Willie McCovey]] and [[Barry Bonds]], the club went 52 years until its first [[World Series]] title in [[2010 World Series|2010]], and won an additional title in [[2012 World Series|2012]]. The Giants play at [[AT&T Park]], which opened in 2000, a cornerstone project of the [[South Beach, San Francisco|South Beach]] and [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]] redevelopment.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Federal Brownfields Tax Incentive: SBC Park
| work=Brownfields
| publisher=US Environmental Protection Agency
| year = 2005 | month = May
| url = http://www.epa.gov/swerosps/bf/pdf/sfcasestudy070505.pdf | format = PDF
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060921012953/http://www.epa.gov/swerosps/bf/pdf/sfcasestudy070505.pdf
| archivedate = August 21, 2006
| accessdate =June 15, 2008}}</ref>
 
In 2012, San Francisco was ranked #1 among America's Best Baseball cities. The study examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.<ref>{{cite web|last=Sperling|first=Bert|title=Best Baseball Cities|url=http://www.bertsperling.com/2012/10/25/best-baseball-cities/|accessdate=29 October 2012}}</ref>
 
At the collegiate level, the Dons of the [[University of San Francisco]] compete in [[NCAA]] [[NCAA Division I|Division I]], where [[Bill Russell]] guided the program to [[NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship|basketball championships]] in 1955 and 1956. The [[San Francisco State University|San Francisco State]] Gators and the [[Academy of Art University]] Urban Knights compete in [[NCAA Division II|Division II]]. AT&T Park has since 2002 hosted an annual post-season [[college football]] [[bowl game]], currently named the [[Kraft Fight Hunger Bowl]]. In 2011, San Francisco hosted the [[2011 California Golden Bears football team|California Golden Bears]] football team at Candlestick Park and AT&T Park while their home stadium in Berkeley was being renovated.
 
The [[Bay to Breakers]] footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit.<ref>{{cite web
| title = About Us – History
| work=ING Bay to Breakers
| publisher=ING Group
| date = March 11, 2008
| url = http://baytobreakers.com/index.php?page=race-history
| accessdate =July 25, 2010| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVUrVxLf |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[San Francisco Marathon]] attracts more than 21,000 participants.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Bulwa | first = Demian
| title = S.F. Marathon: 26.2&nbsp;miles of feel-good pain
| work=[[News release|Press Release]]
| publisher=SFGate
| date = July 27, 2009
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/07/26/BA0218VCGF.DTL
| accessdate =September 7, 2010
}}</ref> The [[Escape from Alcatraz (triathlon)|Escape from Alcatraz]] [[triathlon]] has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Fact Sheet
| work=[[News release|Press Release]]
| publisher=Accenture Escape from Alcatraz Triathlon
| date = May 23, 2008
| url = http://www.escapefromalcatraztriathlon.com/Assets/ESCAPE+From+Alcatraz/Fact+Sheet.pdf
| accessdate =January 19, 2009
}}</ref> The [[Olympic Club]], founded in 1860, is the oldest [[Sports club|athletic club]] in the United States. Its private golf course, situated on the border with [[Daly City, California|Daly City]], has hosted the [[U.S. Open (golf)|U.S. Open]] on five occasions. The public [[Harding Park Golf Course]] is an occasional stop on the [[PGA Tour]]. San Francisco will host the [[2013 America's Cup]] yacht racing competition.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Cote | first = John
| title = San Francisco selected to host America's Cup
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | publisher=Hearst Communications
| year = 2010
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/12/31/BAQ11H1QRE.DTL
| accessdate =December 31, 2010
| deadurl=yes}} {{Dead link|date=August 2012|bot=RjwilmsiBot}}</ref>
 
With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than {{convert|200|mi|km}} of [[segregated cycle facilities|bicycle paths, lanes]] and bike routes in the city,<ref>{{cite web
| title = Bicycle Network Facilities
| work=Commuting and Resources
| publisher=SF Municipal Transportation Authority
| date = May 12, 2008
| url = http://www.sfmta.com/cms/bcomm/3180.html
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> and the [[Embarcadero (San Francisco)|Embarcadero]] and [[Marina Green]] are favored sites for [[skateboarding]]. Extensive public tennis facilities are available in [[Golden Gate Park]] and [[Dolores Park]], as well as at smaller neighborhood courts throughout the city. Boating, sailing, [[windsurfing]] and [[kitesurfing]] are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the [[Marina District, San Francisco|Marina District]]. San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the U.S.<ref name="fitness">{{cite news
| last = Hübler | first = Eric
| title = The Fittest and Fattest Cities in America
| work=Men's Fitness | publisher=American Media, Inc
| year = 2008
| url = http://www.mensfitness.com/city_rankings/454
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20081011203124/http://www.mensfitness.com/city_rankings/454
| archivedate = October 11, 2008
| accessdate =June 15, 2008}}</ref>
{{-}}
 
[[Cycling in San Francisco|Cycling]] is growing in San Francisco. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the [[San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency|Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA)]] in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts.<ref>[http://128.121.89.101/cms/bhome/documents/City_of_San_Francisco_2010_Bicycle_Count_Report_edit12082010.pdf "City of San Francisco 2010 Bicycle Count Report"], San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2010, p. 3.</ref> The MTA estimates that about 128,000 trips are made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips.<ref>[http://www.sfmta.com/cms/rbikes/documents/2008SFStateofCyclingReport.pdf "2008 San Francisco State of Cycling Report"], San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2008, p. 9.</ref> Improvements in cycling infrastructure in recent years, including additional bike lanes and parking racks, has made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient. Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the [[League of American Bicyclists]].
 
== Economy ==
{{See also|List of companies based in San Francisco}}
[[File:Alcatraz Island 1, SF, CA, jjron 25.03.2012.jpg|thumb|right|[[Alcatraz Island|Alcatraz]] receives 1.5&nbsp;million visitors per year.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Gonzales | first = Richard
| title = New Parts of Alcatraz Revealed to Public
| work=People and Places
| publisher=National Public Radio
| date = May 22, 2006
| url = http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9977965
| accessdate =June 15, 2008}}</ref>]]
 
Tourism, the city's largest private-sector employer,<ref name="tourism-largest-private-sector">{{cite news
| last = Flinn | first = Ryan
| title = S.F. tourism picks up, but spending stays flat
| work = San Francisco Chronicle | page= D-1
| date = September 3, 2010
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/09/02/BU8S1F7CUG.DTL
|accessdate =February 4, 2012
}}</ref> is the backbone of the San Francisco economy. Its [[San Francisco in popular culture|frequent portrayal]] in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. It is the city where [[Tony Bennett]] "left [[I Left My Heart in San Francisco|his heart]]," where the ''[[Birdman of Alcatraz]]'' spent many of his final years, where [[Rice-a-Roni]]<ref>{{cite news
| last = Finz | first = Stacy
| title = Rice-a-Redux After a 7-year hiatus, it's billed once again as the San Francisco treat
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = A-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = July 16, 2006
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/07/16/MNGTUK06P31.DTL
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> was said to be the favorite treat, and where [[Full House]], a popular American sitcom was set. San Francisco attracts the fourth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the U.S.{{update after|2013|06|01|reason=Tourism numbers published annually in May}},<ref name="TravelandTourism">{{cite web
| title = Overseas Visitation Estimates for U.S. States, Cities, and Census Regions: 2011
| work=International Visitation in the United States
| publisher=US Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, US Department of Commerce
| date = May 2012
| url = http://tinet.ita.doc.gov/outreachpages/download_data_table/2011_States_and_Cities.pdf
| format = PDF
| accessdate =November 12, 2012
}}</ref> ranks 35th out of the 100 most visited cities worldwide,{{update after|2013|02|01|reason=Euromonitor International updates these numbers every January}},<ref name="euromonitor.com">{{ cite news
| title = Euromonitor International’s top city destinations ranking
| work=euromontior.com
| publisher=Euromontior
| url = http://blog.euromonitor.com/2012/01/euromonitor-internationals-top-city-destinations-ranking1-.html
| accessdate =March 1, 2012
}}</ref> and claims [[Pier 39]] near [[Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco|Fisherman's Wharf]] as the third-most popular tourist attraction in the nation.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Sights in San Francisco
| publisher=City and County of San Francisco
| url = http://www.sfgov.org/site/mainpages_page.asp?id=18191
| accessdate =September 14, 2006
}}</ref> More than 16&nbsp;million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2011, injecting $8.5&nbsp;billion into the economy.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Finz | first = Stacy
| title = S.F. tourism bounces back as economy recovers
|work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = D-1
| date = March 27, 2012
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2012/03/27/BUSE1NQBC3.DTL
| accessdate =March 27, 2012
}}</ref> With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the [[Moscone Center]], San Francisco is also among the top-ten North American destinations for conventions and conferences.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Spain | first = William
| title = Cost factors: Top convention cities boast most-affordable lodging
| work=CBS Marketwatch
| publisher=Marketwatch Inc
| date = November 13, 2004
| url = http://www.marketwatch.com/story/top-convention-cities-boast-most-affordable-lodging?siteid=mktw&dist=
| accessdate =June 15, 2008}}</ref> In a [[Euromonitor International]] ranking of top city destinations, San Francisco was ranked the 33rd most visited city in the world out of 100 of the world's most visited cities.<ref name="euromonitor.com"/>
 
The legacy of the [[California Gold Rush]] turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the [[West Coast of the United States|West Coast]] in the early twentieth century. [[Montgomery Street]] in the [[Financial District (San Francisco)|Financial District]] became known as the "Wall Street of the West," home to the [[Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco]], the [[Wells Fargo]] corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct [[Pacific Exchange|Pacific Coast Stock Exchange]]. [[Bank of America]], a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at [[555 California Street]] for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions,<ref name="CityData.com">{{cite web
| title = San Francisco: Economy
| work=City-Data.com
| publisher=Advameg Inc
| url = http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/San-Francisco-Economy.html
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> seven [[Fortune 500]] companies,<ref>{{cite news
| title = 2009: Cities
| work=Fortune 500
| publisher=Fortune magazine, Time Inc
| date = May 5, 2008
| url = http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2008/cities/
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, [[San Francisco architecture|architecture]] and design—also with significant presence in the city, San Francisco is designated as one of eighteen [[Global city|Alpha World Cities]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2010.html|title=The World According to GaWC 2010|work=Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network|publisher=[[Loughborough University]]|accessdate=2011-09-15}}</ref> San Francisco ranks 18th in the world's [[list of cities by GDP|top producing cities]], and [[Global Financial Centres Index|12th place]] in the top twenty global financial centers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.longfinance.net/Publications/GFCI%2011.pdf|title=The Global Financial Centres Index 11|date=March 2012|publisher=Long Finance|accessdate=April 16, 2012}}</ref>
[[File:SF California Street USA.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Financial District down California Street.]]
 
Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has increasingly become tied to [[San Jose, California|San Jose]] and [[Silicon Valley]], its neighbors to the south, sharing the need for highly educated workers with specialized skills.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Selna | first = Robert
| title = New jobs, houses spur S.F. population in 2007
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = B-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = May 15, 2008
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/05/15/BA2110LPHB.DTL
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
}}</ref> San Francisco became an epicenter of the [[Dot-com bubble|Dot-Com bubble]] of the 1990s, and the subsequent [[Web 2.0]] boom of the late 2000s. Many popular and prominent Internet companies and "[[Startup company|start-ups]]" such as [[Craigslist]], [[Twitter]], [[Zynga]], [[Salesforce.com]], [[Airbnb]], and the [[Wikimedia Foundation]] among others have established their head offices in San Francisco.
 
San Francisco has been positioning itself as a [[biotechnology]] and [[biomedical]] hub and research center. The [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]] neighborhood, site of a second campus of [[University of California-San Francisco|UCSF]], fosters a budding industry and serves as headquarters of the [[California Institute for Regenerative Medicine]], the public agency funding [[stem cell research]] programs statewide. As of 2009, there were 1,800 full-time biochemists and biophysicists employed in San Francisco, with an annual mean wage of $92,620.<ref>{{cite web
| url=http://www.collegedegreereport.com/city-data/biochemists-and-biophysicists/san-francisco-oakland-fremont
| title=San Francisco, Oakland, Fremont CA – Biochemists & Biophysicists – Career, Salary & Employment Info
| publisher=College Degree Report
| year = 2010
| accessdate =July 25, 2010}}</ref>
 
Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments as lately, it has been particularly popular with entrepreneurs establishing "start-up" companies.<ref>{{cite news
| last = Tan | first = Aldrich M.
| title = San Francisco is gateway city for immigrants and Silicon Valley Technology
| work=Fogcityjournal.com
| date = April 12, 2006
| url = http://www.fogcityjournal.com/news_in_brief/sf_tech_gateway_060412.shtml
| accessdate =June 15, 2008
}}</ref> The number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977.<ref name="SFEconomicStrategy"/> The successful penetration of national [[big box]] and [[formula retail]] chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission supports a publicity campaign to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy,<ref>{{cite news
|title=Main Street Fights Chain Street
|author=Said, Carolyn
|date=November 29, 2005
|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/11/29/BUGN3FS8911.DTL&type=business
|accessdate =August 27, 2006 |work=San Francisco Chronicle
}}</ref> and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop,<ref>{{cite news
|url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/03/24/BAGD65PVI821.DTL
|author=Hetter, Katia
|date=March 21, 2004
|title=Supervisors OK limits on chain-store expansion
|accessdate=January 19, 2007
|work=San Francisco Chronicle
}}</ref> an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters.<ref>{{cite web
|url=http://smartvoter.org/2006/11/07/ca/sf/meas/G/
|title=Proposition G: Limitations on Formula Retail Stores, City of San Francisco
|accessdate=January 19, 2007
|publisher=smartvoter.org
}}</ref>
 
The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 6.25% of the city's population, followed by [[University of California, San Francisco]]. Third, at 2.04%, is [[Wells Fargo]], the largest private-sector employer.<ref name="cafr2009">[http://www.sfcontroller.org/ftp/uploadedfiles/controller/reports/CAFR/09/Statistical_section_2009.pdf City and County of San Francisco, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, for the Year ended June 30, 2009]. Retrieved September 25, 2010.</ref>
 
==Law and government==
{{Main|Government of San Francisco|Politics of San Francisco|Mayor of San Francisco|l3=Mayors of San Francisco}}
<!-- The majority of this section is copied directly from http://www.sfgov.org/site/sf311_index.asp?id=55765. This is considered plagiarism. So if anyone has time, please rewrite this section. Thanks. -->
San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a [[consolidated city-county]], a status it has held since 1856.<ref name="Coy 1919 409"/> It is the only such consolidation in California.<ref name="CityCounty">{{cite web
| url = http://sf311.org/index.aspx?page=262
| title = Board of Supervisors – Does San Francisco have a City Council?
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
| work=SFGov SF311
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVT9031H |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref> The [[Mayor of San Francisco|mayor]] is also the county executive, and the county [[San Francisco Board of Supervisors|Board of Supervisors]] acts as the [[city council]]. Under the city charter, the government of San Francisco is constituted of two co-equal branches. The executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service. The 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of [[Initiative|direct ballot initiatives]] to pass legislation.
[[File:SFCityHall.png|thumb|left|[[San Francisco City Hall]]]]
The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city.<ref name="SF_Gov_Supervisor_Districts">{{cite web
| title = Board of Supervisors District Information
| url = http://www.sfgov.org/site/bdsupvrs_index.asp?id=4385
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070714005328/http://www.sfgov.org/site/bdsupvrs_index.asp?id=4385
| archivedate = July 14, 2007
| publisher=City and County of San Francisco, Board of Supervisors
| accessdate =January 29, 2006
}}</ref> Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, [[Dianne Feinstein]] assumed the office following the assassination of [[George Moscone]] and was later selected by the Board to finish the term. In 2011, [[Edwin M. Lee]] was selected by the Board to finish the term of [[Gavin Newsom]], who resigned to take office as [[Lieutenant Governor of California]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://blog.sfgate.com/cityinsider/2011/01/11/ed-lee-becomes-the-citys-first-chinese-american-mayor/ | work=The San Francisco Chronicle | first=John | last=Coté | title=Ed Lee becomes the city's first Chinese American mayor | date=January 11, 2011}}</ref>
 
Because of its unique city-county status, local government exercises jurisdiction over property that would otherwise be located outside of its corporation limit. [[San Francisco International Airport]], though located in [[San Mateo County]], is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco also has a county jail complex located in San Mateo County, in an [[unincorporated area]] adjacent to [[San Bruno, California|San Bruno]]. San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the [[Hetch Hetchy Valley]] and [[drainage basin|watershed]] in [[Yosemite National Park]] by the [[Raker Act]] in 1913.<ref name="CityCounty"/>
 
San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the [[Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals|U.S. Court of Appeals]], the [[Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco|Federal Reserve Bank]], and the [[United States Mint|U.S. Mint]]. Until [[Base Realignment and Closure|decommissioning]] in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]], [[Treasure Island, California|Treasure Island]], and [[San Francisco Naval Shipyard|Hunters Point]]—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of [[Fleet Week]]. The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the [[Supreme Court of California|state supreme court]] and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/91446.pdf
| title = Foreign Consular Offices in the United States, 2007
| accessdate =December 12, 2008
| publisher=United States Department of State}}</ref>
 
The municipal budget for fiscal year 2011–12 was $6.83&nbsp;billion.<ref>{{cite news
| author = John Coté, Heather Knight, Stephanie Lee
| title = Budget cedes to election intrigue
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/07/26/MNEG1KFC6O.DTL
| publisher = San Francisco Chronicle
| date = July 27, 2011
| accessdate =March 7, 2012}}</ref> The city employs around 27,000 workers.<ref>{{cite news
| author = Gordon, Rachel
| title = 1 in 3 San Francisco employees earned $100,000
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/04/25/MNC51CLUBN.DTL
| publisher = San Francisco Chronicle
| date = April 26, 2010
| accessdate =March 7, 2012}}</ref>
 
==Demographics==
{{Historical populations|type=USA
|1848|1000
|1849|25000
|1852|34776
|1860|56802
|1870|149473
|1880|233959
|1890|298997
|1900|342782
|1910|416912
|1920|506676
|1930|634394
|1940|634536
|1950|775357
|1960|740316
|1970|715674
|1980|678974
|1990|723959
|2000|776733
|2010|805235
|2011|812826
|footnote=Sources:<ref name="1849pop"/><ref name="SFCensus2010">{{cite web | last = Gibson | first = Campbell | title = Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 | publisher=U.S. Census Bureau | year = 1998 | month = June | accessdate =January 29, 2006}}</ref><ref name="1852pop">Official 1850 census results were destroyed by fire. This 1852 figure is from a state Census. [http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab08.txt]</ref><br />2011 Census estimates.<ref name="SF QuickFacts"/>
{{See also|:File:SFPopulation.svg|l1=Population Graph}}
}}
 
The [[2010 United States Census]]<ref>{{USCensus-2010CA}}</ref> reported that San Francisco had a population of 805,235. The [[population density]] was 17,160 per square mile (6,632/km<sup>2</sup>). The ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 [[White (U.S. Census)]]s (48.1%), 267,915 [[Asian (U.S. Census)|Asian]]s (33.3%), 121,744 [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic]]s or [[Latino (U.S. Census)|Latino]]s of any race (15.1%), 48,870 [[African American (U.S. Census)|African American]]s (6.1%), 4,024 [[Native American (U.S. Census)|Native American]]s (0.5%), 3,359 [[Pacific Islander (U.S. Census)|Pacific Islander]]s (0.4%), 53,021 from [[Race (United States Census)|other races]] (6.6%), and 37,659 from two or more races (4.7%). The Census reported that 780,971 people (97.0% of the population) lived in households, 18,902 (2.3%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 5,362 (0.7%) were institutionalized. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population increased to 812,826 as of July 2011.<ref name="2011-pop-estimate">{{cite web |title=Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 |url=http://www.census.gov/popest/data/counties/totals/2011/tables/CO-EST2011-01-06.csv |publisher=U.S. Census Bureau |accessdate=April 5, 2012}}</ref>
 
There were 345,811 households, out of which 63,577 (18.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 109,437 (31.6%) were [[marriage|opposite-sex married couples]] living together, 28,844 (8.3%) had a female householder with no husband present, 12,748 (3.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 21,677 (6.3%) [[POSSLQ|unmarried opposite-sex partnerships]], and 10,384 (3.0%) [[same-sex partnerships|same-sex married couples or partnerships]]. 133,366 households (38.6%) were made up of individuals and 34,234 (9.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26. There were 151,029 [[family (U.S. Census)|families]] (43.7% of all households); the average family size was 3.11.
 
The population was spread out with 107,524 people (13.4%) under the age of 18, 77,664 people (9.6%) aged 18 to 24, 301,802 people (37.5%) aged 25 to 44, 208,403 people (25.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 109,842 people (13.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.5 years. For every 100 females there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males.
 
There were 376,942 housing units at an average density of 1,625.5 per square mile (627.6/km<sup>2</sup>), of which 123,646 (35.8%) were owner-occupied, and 222,165 (64.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 327,985 people (40.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 452,986 people (56.3%) lived in rental housing units.
 
The [[California Department of Finance]] estimated the population at 856,095, as of January 1, 2010.<ref>{{cite web |last= Sheya |first= Daniel |title= E-1 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties, and the State with Annual Percent Change – January 1, 2009 and 2010 |publisher=[[California Department of Finance]] |location= Sacramento, Calif. |date = May 2010|url= http://www.dof.ca.gov/research/demographic/reports/estimates/e-1/2009-10/view.php |archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20110607175304/http://www.dof.ca.gov/research/demographic/reports/estimates/e-1/2009-10/view.php |archivedate= June 7, 2011 }}</ref> With over 17,000 people per square mile, San Francisco is the [[List of United States cities by population density|second-most densely populated]] major American city (among cities greater than 200,000 population).<ref name="SF_Population_Density">After New York City, only for cities with greater than 200,000 population. Otherwise it is not 2nd.{{cite web
| title = 2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density
| url = http://www.demographia.com/db-2000city50kdens.htm
| publisher=Demographia
| accessdate =August 23, 2007}}</ref> San Francisco is the traditional focal point of the [[San Francisco Bay Area]] and forms part of the San Francisco-Oakland-[[Fremont, California|Fremont]] [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]] and the greater [[San Jose, California|San Jose]]-San Francisco-[[Oakland, California|Oakland]] [[Combined Statistical Area]] (CSA) whose population is over seven million, making it the fifth largest in the United States as of the 2000 Census.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t29/tab06.xls
| title = Population in Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs) in Alphabetical Order and Numerical and Percent Change for the United States and Puerto Rico: 1990 and 2000
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
| format = Excel
| work=Census 2000 and 1990 Census
| publisher=U.S. Census Bureau
| date = December 30, 2003| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5QjGLiVrf |archivedate = July 30, 2007| deadurl=no}}</ref>
 
San Francisco has a [[minority-majority]] population, as non-Hispanic [[White American|whites]] comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940.<ref name=census/> According to the 2010 Census, Asians of any nationality make up 33.3% of the population with those of [[Chinese American|Chinese ethnicity]] constituting the largest single ethnic group in San Francisco at 21.4% of the population; the other Asian groups are [[Filipino American|Filipinos]] (4.5%), [[Vietnamese American|Vietnamese]] (1.6%), [[Japanese American|Japanese]] (1.3%), [[Indian American|Asian Indians]] (1.2%), [[Korean American|Koreans]] (1.2%), [[Thai American|Thais]] (0.3%), [[Burmese American|Burmese]] (0.2%), [[Cambodian American|Cambodians]] (0.2%), and both [[Indonesian American|Indonesians]] and [[Laotian American|Laotians]] make up less than 0.1% of the city's population.<ref name="Census 2010-GCT-PH1">{{cite web
| title = QT-P3 – Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010
| url = http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_QTP3
| work = [[2010 United States Census]] Summary File 1
| publisher = United States Census Bureau
| accessdate =July 11, 2011}}</ref> While spread out through the city, the Chinese population is most heavily present in Chinatown, [[Sunset District]], and [[Richmond District, San Francisco|Richmond District]], whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the [[Crocker-Amazon]] (which is continuous with the Filipino community of [[Daly City]], the city with one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in [[South of Market|SoMa]]. There was a large Filipino community in San Francisco until the closure of the [[I-Hotel]] in 1977 dissolved the [[Manilatown]] district for good, and many of its residents moved to Daly City. The community remained small through the 1980s and 90s. However, in recent years the Filipino community in the City has experienced a significant resurgence. The San Francisco Bay Area is home to over 382,950 Filipino Americans, one of the largest communities of Filipinos outside of the [[Philippines]].<ref name="Census 2010-GCT-PH1"/><ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.faleo.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=62| title = Training and Education /PET| accessdate =April 28, 2012| publisher=Filipino-American Law Enforcement Officers Association}}</ref> The [[Tenderloin, San Francisco|Tenderloin District]] is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon. Koreans and Japanese have a large presence in the [[Western Addition]], which is where the city's [[Japantown, San Francisco|Japantown]] is located. The [[Pacific Islander American|Pacific Islander]] population is 0.4% (0.8% including those with partial ancestry). Over half of the Pacific Islander population is of [[Samoan American|Samoan]] descent, with residence in the [[Bayview-Hunters Point]] and [[Visitacion Valley]] areas; Pacific Islanders make up more than three percent of the population in both communities.<ref name="Census 2010-GCT-PH1"/>
 
[[Hispanics in the United States|Hispanics]] of any race make up 15.1% of the population: [[Mexican American|Mexican]]s (7.4%), [[Salvadoran American|Salvadoran]]s (2.0%), [[Nicaraguan American|Nicaraguan]]s (0.9%), [[Guatemalan American|Guatemalan]]s (0.8%), [[Stateside Puerto Rican|Puerto Rican]]s (0.5%), [[Peruvian American|Peruvian]]s (0.4%), [[Honduran American|Honduran]]s (0.3%), [[Cuban American|Cuban]]s (0.2%), and [[Colombian American|Colombian]]s (0.2%). The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the [[Mission District, San Francisco|Mission District]], Tenderloin District, and [[Excelsior District, San Francisco|Excelsior District]].<ref name="interactivemap"/> San Francisco's [[Black American|African American]] population has declined in recent decades, from 13.4% in 1970 to 6.1%.<ref name="SF QuickFacts">{{cite web
| title = QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California
| url = http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06075.html
| publisher = United States Census Bureau
| accessdate =July 11, 2011
}}</ref> The current percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of the state of California;<ref name="SF QuickFacts"/> conversely, the city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state. The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of [[Bayview-Hunters Point, San Francisco|Bayview-Hunters Point]], and [[Visitacion Valley, San Francisco|Visitacion Valley]] in southeastern San Francisco, and in the [[Fillmore District, San Francisco|Fillmore District]] in the northeastern part of the city.<ref name="interactivemap">{{cite news
| title = Interactive: Mapping the census
| work=The Washington Post | page =
| publisher=
| date =
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/nation/census/2010/
| accessdate =February 9, 2012
}}</ref>
 
Native Californians form a relatively small percentage of the city's population: only 37.7% of its residents were born in California, while 25.2% were born in a different U.S. state. More than a third of city residents (35.6%) were born outside the United States.<ref name="SF QuickFacts"/>
 
According to the 2005 American Community Survey, San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15.4%.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.law.ucla.edu/williamsinstitute/publications/SameSexCouplesandGLBpopACS.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070702202709/http://www.law.ucla.edu/williamsinstitute/publications/SameSexCouplesandGLBpopACS.pdf
| archivedate = July 2, 2007
| title = Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey
| last = Gates | first=Gary
| accessdate =July 10, 2008
| year = 2006 | month = October
| format = PDF
| publisher = The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law
}}</ref> San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other [[metropolitan area]].<ref name="gaystats">{{cite web
| title = Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households
| format = PDF
| url = http://www.hrc.org/documents/gayandlesbianfamilies.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080413201016/http://www.hrc.org/documents/gayandlesbianfamilies.pdf
| archivedate = April 13, 2008
| accessdate =August 26, 2006
| publisher = Human Rights Campaign}}</ref> Among major U.S. cities, the city has the largest percentage of [[gay]], [[lesbian]] and [[bisexual]] residents, at 15.4%.<ref>[http://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2003432940_gays16m.html 12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says] retrieved 16 September 2012</ref>
 
Of all major cities, San Francisco ranks second behind [[Seattle]] for the percentage of residents with a college degree. Over 44% of adults within the city limits have a bachelor's or higher degree.<ref name="Bizjournals">{{cite news
| url = http://www.bizjournals.com/specials/pages/12.html
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060701071804/http://www.bizjournals.com/specials/pages/12.html
| archivedate = July 1, 2006
| title = The brainpower of America's largest cities
| accessdate =August 5, 2010
| date = unknown 2010
| publisher = Bizjournals.com (data interpreted from U.S. Census)}}</ref> ''[[USA Today]]'' reported that Rob Pitingolo, a researcher who measured college graduates per square mile, found that San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's {{convert|46.7|sqmi|km2}}.<ref name="USA Today">{{cite news
| last = Winter | first = Michael
| url = http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2010/06/new-measure-ranks-san-francisco-the-smartest-us-city/1
| title = New measure ranks San Francisco the 'smartest' U.S. city
| publisher = USA Today
| accessdate =August 5, 2010
| date = June 9, 2010}}</ref>
 
San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income<ref name="Census ACS 2003">{{cite web
| url = http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Ranking/2003/R07T160.htm
| title = Median Household Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars) (Place Level)
| accessdate =June 23, 2009
| date = August 22, 2007
| publisher = U.S. Census Bureau
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080323090208/http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Ranking/2003/R07T160.htm
| archivedate = March 23, 2008
}}</ref> with a 2007 value of $65,519.<ref name="SF QuickFacts"/> Median family income is $81,136,<ref name="SF QuickFacts"/> and San Francisco ranks 8th of major cities worldwide in the number of billionaires known to be living within city limits.<ref name="Billionaires in San Francisco">{{cite news
| last=Obusan | first=Claire
| url = http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/10/worlds-richest-cities-billionaires-2009-billionaires-cities.html
| title = Top Ten Billionaire cities
| accessdate =June 22, 2009
| date = March 12, 2006
| publisher = Forbes Magazine
}}</ref> Following a national trend, an emigration of middle-class families is contributing to widening income disparity<ref name="MiddleClass"/> and has left the city with a lower proportion of children, 14.5%, than any other large American city.<ref name="ChildPopulation">{{cite web
| url = http://www.colemanadvocates.org/includes/downloads/amiliesstruggletostaypg111.pdf?PHPSESSID=c0e29242c58e4e22f6008bcf41a7302f
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20100415094818/http://www.colemanadvocates.org/includes/downloads/amiliesstruggletostaypg111.pdf?PHPSESSID=c0e29242c58e4e22f6008bcf41a7302f
| archivedate = April 15, 2010
| title = Families Struggle To Stay: Why Families are Leaving San Francisco and What Can Be Done
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
| date = March 1, 2006
| format = PDF
| publisher = Coleman Advocates for Children & Youth}}</ref>
 
The city's [[poverty rate]] is 11.8% and the number of families in poverty stands at 7.4%, both lower than the national average.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=05000US06075&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US06%7C05000US06075&_street=&_county=san+francisco&_cityTown=san+francisco&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=050&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=
| title = Economic Characteristics
| accessdate =August 31, 2009
| year = 2007
| work=2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates – Data Profile Highlights
| publisher=U.S. Census Bureau}}</ref> The unemployment rate stands at 7.4% as of April 2012.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.edd.ca.gov/About_EDD/pdf/urate201205.pdf |title=California’s unemployment rate decreases to 10.9 percent |publisher=State of California, Employment Development Department |date=May 18, 2012 |accessdate=May 18, 2012}}</ref> [[Homelessness]] has been a chronic and controversial problem for San Francisco since the early 1980s. The homeless population is estimated to be 13,500 with 6,500 living on the streets.<ref>{{cite news | url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2010/09/26/BA8E1FJCR6.DTL
| title = Homeless problem lingers as S.F. spends millions
| date = September 27, 2010
| accessdate =December 5, 2011
| work=The San Francisco Chronicle
| first1=Phillip
| last1=Matier
| first2=Andrew
| last2=Ross
}}</ref> The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city.<ref>{{cite web
| title = San Francisco Program Combats Homelessness with Innovation
| publisher=[[Public Broadcasting Service|PBS]]
| date = April 5, 2005
| url = http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june05/homeless_4-8.html
| accessdate =September 6, 2007
}}</ref><ref>{{cite web
| last = Pratt
| first = Timothy
| title = Critics say regional plan won't solve the problem
| publisher=Las Vegas Sun
| date = August 12, 2006
| url = http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2005/aug/12/critics-say-regional-plan-wont-solve-the-problem/
| accessdate =August 30, 2006}}</ref> [[Crime rate|Rates]] of reported violent and property crimes for 2009 (736 and 4,262 incidents per 100,000 residents, respectively)<ref name="SFCrimeStats">{{cite web
| url = http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_06.html#s
| title = Uniform Crime Reports: Table 6 Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009
| accessdate =January 23, 2011
| work=2009 Crime in the United States
| publisher=Federal Bureau of Investigation
}}</ref> are slightly lower than for similarly sized U.S. cities.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_16.html
| title = Uniform Crime Reports: Table 16 Crime in the United States by Metropolitan Statistical Area, 2009
| accessdate =January 23, 2011
| work=2009 Crime in the United States
| publisher=Federal Bureau of Investigation
}}</ref>
 
{|
|-
|align="left" |
{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;text-align: right;font-size: 90%;"
! Demographic profile<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.census.gov http://www.bayareacensus.ca.gov|title=Demographic Profile Bay Area Census| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5EmW0kkcZ | archivedate = March 30, 2006| deadurl=no}}</ref>
! 2010
! 2000
! 1990
! 1980
|-
|align="left" | One race || 93.5% || 95.7% || ||
|-
|align="left" | White || 48.5% || 49.7% || 53.6% || 59.2%
|-
|align="left" | Asian || 33.3% || 30.8% || 28.7% || 22.0%
|-
|align="left" | Black or African American || 6.1% || 7.8% || 10.9% || 12.7%
|-
|align="left" | American Indian and Alaska Native || 0.2% || 0.4% || 0.5% || 0.5%
|-
|align="left" | Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander || 0.4% || 0.5% || 0.5% ||
|-
|align="left" | Some other race || 6.6% || 6.5% || 5.8% || 5.6%
|-
|align="left" | Two or more races || 4.7% || 4.0% || ||
|-
|align="left" | Hispanic or Latino (of any race) || 15.0% || 14.1% || 13.3% || 12.4%
|-
|align="left" | White alone || 41.9% || 43.6% || 46.6% || 53.1%
|}
|}
 
===Crime===
Although San Francisco has low crime, it is not crime-free.
In 2011, 50 murders were reported.<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Through-hard-times-S-F-killings-at-historic-lows-2441692.php Through hard times, S.F. killings at historic lows - SFGate<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts.<ref>[http://www.neighborhoodscout.com/ca/san-francisco/crime/ San Francisco crime rates and statistics - NeighborhoodScout<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The [[Tenderloin, San Francisco|Tenderloin]] area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. Tenderloin also sees high rates of homelessness, drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution.<ref>[http://foundsf.org/index.php?title=The_Tenderloin The Tenderloin - FoundSF<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Another area experiencing high crime rates and [[urban decay]] is the [[Bayview-Hunters Point, San Francisco|Bayview-Hunters Point]] area. Homelessness is also a growing problem in the city.<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/homeless/ Shame of the city - SFGate<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
Multiple street gangs have a presence in the city including [[MS-13]],<ref>[http://www.sfweekly.com/related/to/La+Mara+Salvatrucha+Street+Gang/ La Mara Salvatrucha Street Gang - San Francisco<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> and a small presence of the [[Crips]] in Bayview-Hunterspoint.<ref>[http://www.sfweekly.com/2012-09-26/news/crips-gangs-sfpd-bloods-bayview-hunters-point/ Crip-less: S.F.'s Dislike of Franchises Extends to Street Gangs - Page 1 - News - San Francisco - SF Weekly<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
The city is mainly patrolled by the [[San Francisco Police Department]]. The [[San Francisco Sheriff's Department]] also performs law enforcement duties in the city.
 
==Education==
===Colleges and universities===
[[File:Lone Mountain Campus.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Lone Mountain Campus of the [[University of San Francisco]].]]
{{See also|List of colleges and universities in San Francisco}}
The [[University of California, San Francisco]] is the sole campus of the [[University of California|University of California system]] entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top-five medical schools in the United States<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-medical-schools/primary-care-rankings
| title = America's Best Graduate Schools: Best Medical Schools
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
| year = 2010
| publisher=[[U.S. News and World Report]]
}}</ref> and operates the [[UCSF Medical Center]], which ranks among the top 15 hospitals in the country.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://health.usnews.com/health-news/best-hospitals/articles/2011/07/18/best-hospitals-2011-12-the-honor-roll
| title = Best Hospitals 2011–12: the Honor Roll
| publisher=U.S. News and World Report
| author=Comarow, Avery
| date = July 14, 2010
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
}}</ref> UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.sfced.org/docs/Largest_Employers_in_SF_2007.doc
| title = San Francisco Business Information: Largest Employers in San Francisco
| accessdate =June 9, 2008
| work=San Francisco Business Times Book of Lists, 2007
| format = Microsoft Word
| publisher=San Francisco Center for Economic Development
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070817111006/http://www.sfced.org/docs/Largest_Employers_in_SF_2007.doc| archivedate = August 17, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
|title = UCSF packs a $6B punch for economy
|publisher=[[San Francisco Business Times]]
|author=Leuty, Ron
|date = June 11, 2010
|url = http://sanfrancisco.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/stories/2010/06/14/story1.html
|accessdate =July 26, 2010
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVPWF1YS |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref><ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.ucsf.edu/eir/employment-economic-stimulus
| title = Employment & Economic Stimulus
| accessdate =July 26, 2010
| work=2010 Economic Impact Report
| publisher=[[University of California, San Francisco]]
| archiveurl = http://www.webcitation.org/5rVOBCPUT |archivedate = July 26, 2010| deadurl=no}}</ref> A {{convert|43|acre|m2|adj=on}} [[Mission Bay, San Francisco|Mission Bay]] campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in [[List of hills in San Francisco|Parnassus Heights]]. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.ucsf.edu/news/2003/07/4846/new-ucsf-mission-bay-campus-countrys-largest-biomedical-university-expansio
| title = New UCSF Mission Bay campus: country's largest biomedical university expansion
| author=Wallace Ravven
| accessdate =June 9, 2008
| publisher=UCSF
| date = July 22, 2003
}}</ref> All in all, UCSF operates 20 facilities across San Francisco.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.ucsf.edu/sites/default/files/documents/ucsf-city-map.pdf
| title = UCSF Main Locations Map
| author= UCSF Planning Group
| accessdate =June 27, 2011
| publisher= UCSF
| year = 2009
}}</ref> The [[University of California, Hastings College of the Law]], founded in [[Civic Center, San Francisco|Civic Center]] in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.uchastings.edu/?pid=37
| title = Hastings Quick Facts
| accessdate =August 30, 2006
| publisher=University of California, Hastings College of the Law}}</ref>
 
[[San Francisco State University]] is part of the [[California State University]] system and is located near [[Lake Merced]].<ref name=sfsu>{{cite web
| url = http://www.sfsu.edu/~puboff/sfsufact/archive/0809/files/SFSU_Facts_0809.pdf
| title = SF State Facts 2008–2009
| accessdate =March 7, 2009
| publisher=SFSU
}}</ref> The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines.<ref name=sfsu/> The [[City College of San Francisco]], with its main facility in the [[Ingleside, San Francisco|Ingleside]] district, is one of the largest two-year [[community college]]s in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.ccsf.edu/Offices/Public_Information/factsheet.html
| title =City College of San Francisco Fact Sheet
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
| year = 2008 | month = April
| format = PDF
| publisher=City College of San Francisco}}</ref>
 
Founded in 1855, the [[University of San Francisco]], a private [[Society of Jesus|Jesuit]] university located on [[Lone Mountain (California)|Lone Mountain]], is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.usfca.edu/online/about_USF/USFAlmanac2007.pdf
| title = University of San Francisco Fact Book and Almanac 2007
| date = December 31, 2007
| format = PDF
| publisher=University of San Francisco
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080624193135/http://www.usfca.edu/online/about_USF/USFAlmanac2007.pdf
| archivedate = June 24, 2008
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
}}</ref> [[Golden Gate University]] is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the [[Financial District (San Francisco)|Financial District]]. It is primarily a post-graduate institution focused on professional training in law and business, with smaller undergraduate programs linked to its graduate and professional schools.
 
With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the [[Academy of Art University]] is the largest institute of art and design in the nation.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.academyart.edu/whoweare.html
| title = Who We Are
| accessdate =February 18, 2009
| publisher=Academy of Art University
| year = 2008
}}</ref> Founded in 1871, the [[San Francisco Art Institute]] is the oldest [[art school]] west of the Mississippi.<ref>{{cite book
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=2kz2R2rPFXgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Roadtripping+USA#PPA489,M1
| title = Let's Go: Roadtripping USA
| accessdate =February 18, 2009
| page = 489
| publisher=MacMillan
| year = 2007
}}</ref> The [[California College of the Arts]], located north of [[Potrero Hill, San Francisco|Potrero Hill]], has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing.<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.cca.edu/admissions/undergrad/campuses
| title = Oakland & San Francisco Campuses
| accessdate =May 23, 2012
| publisher=California College of the Arts
| year = 2012
}}</ref> The [[San Francisco Conservatory of Music]], the only independent [[music school]] on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The [[California Culinary Academy]], associated with the [[Le Cordon Bleu]] program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management.
[[California Institute of Integral Studies]], founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation. Known for combining spirituality and social change, the Institute also features a bachelor's degree completion program.
 
===Primary and secondary schools===
<!--Note: All PUBLIC schools are listed in San Francisco Unified School District-->
[[Public school (government funded)|Public schools]] are run by the [[San Francisco Unified School District]] as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. [[Lowell High School (San Francisco)|Lowell High School]], the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi,<ref>{{cite web
| title = The Oldest Public High School West of the Mississippi
| work=About Lowell: Lowell History
| publisher=San Francisco Unified School District
| date = February 22, 2002
| url = http://www.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch697/about/history/
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20020414125943/http://www.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch697/about/history/
| archivedate = April 14, 2002
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
}}</ref> and the smaller [[School of the Arts High School (San Francisco)|School of the Arts High School]] are two of San Francisco's [[magnet school]]s at the secondary level. Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 [[private school|private]] or [[parochial school]]s, compared to a 10% rate nationwide.<ref name="SFGPrvtSchools">{{cite news
| last = Knight | first = Heather
| title = Many reluctantly chose private schools
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = A-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = May 31, 2006
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/05/31/MNGJIJ50T41.DTL
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
}}</ref> Nearly 40 of those schools are [[Catholic school]]s managed by the [[Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco|Archdiocese of San Francisco]].<ref>{{cite web
| title = School Directory August 2010
| publisher=Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco
| date = August 2010
| url = http://sfdcs.org/dcs/sites/default/files/docs/school_directory/Directory_Regular_10-11.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20101127114957/http://sfdcs.org/dcs/sites/default/files/docs/school_directory/Directory_Regular_10-11.pdf
| archivedate = November 27, 2010
| format = PDF
| accessdate =January 23, 2011
}}</ref>
 
==Transportation==
{{Main|Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area}}
 
===Freeways and roads===
{{Main|List of streets in San Francisco}}
[[File:Golden Gate Bridge 1926.jpg|left|thumb|The [[Golden Gate Bridge]] is one of the most famous bridges in the world.]]
[[File:San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge at night.jpg|right|thumb|The [[San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge|Bay Bridge]] at night.]] Due to its unique geography, and the [[Freeway and expressway revolts#San Francisco|freeway revolts]] of the late 1950s,<ref name="freeway">{{cite news
| last = Gordon | first = Rachel
| title = Boulevard of dreams, the premiere
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = B-1
| publisher=Hearst Communications
| date = September 8, 2005
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/09/08/BAGBFEJVE21.DTL
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
}}</ref> San Francisco is one of the few American cities with [[arterial thoroughfares]] instead of having numerous highways within the city.
 
[[Interstate 80 in California|Interstate 80]] begins at the approach to the [[San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge|Bay Bridge]] and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. [[U.S. Route 101 in California|U.S. Route 101]] connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward [[Silicon Valley]]. Northbound, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets [[Mission Street (San Francisco)|Mission Street]], [[Van Ness Avenue (San Francisco)|Van Ness Avenue]], [[Lombard Street (San Francisco)|Lombard Street]], [[Richardson Avenue (San Francisco)|Richardson Avenue]], and Doyle Drive to connect to the [[Golden Gate Bridge]], the only direct automobile link to [[Marin County]] and the North Bay. [[California State Route 1|State Route 1]] also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge, but turns south away from the routing of U.S. 101, first onto Park Presidio Blvd through Golden Gate Park, and then bisecting the west side of the city as the [[19th Avenue (San Francisco)|19th Avenue]] arterial thoroughfare, joining with [[Interstate 280 (California)|Interstate 280]] at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues this southerly routing along the central portion of the Peninsula south to [[San Jose, California|San Jose]]. Interstate 280 also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the [[South of Market (San Francisco)|South of Market]] neighborhood. After the 1989 [[Loma Prieta Earthquake]], city leaders decided to demolish the [[Embarcadero Freeway]] as well, and voters approved demolition of a portion of the [[Central Freeway]], converting them into street-level boulevards.<ref name="freeway"/>
 
[[California State Route 35|State Route 35]], which traverses the majority of the Peninsula along the ridge of the [[Santa Cruz Mountains]], enters the city from the south as [[Skyline Boulevard]], following city streets until it terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. [[California State Route 82|State Route 82]] enters San Francisco from the south as [[Mission Street]], following the path of the historic [[El Camino Real (California)|El Camino Real]] and terminating shortly thereafter at its junction with 280. The western terminus of the historic transcontinental [[Lincoln Highway]] is in [[Lincoln Park (San Francisco)|Lincoln Park]]. Major east–west thoroughfares include [[Geary Boulevard]], the [[List of streets in San Francisco|Lincoln Way]]/[[List of streets in San Francisco|Fell Street]] corridor, and [[Market Street (San Francisco)|Market Street]]/[[List of streets in San Francisco|Portola Drive]].
 
===Public transportation===
{{Main|San Francisco Municipal Railway}}
[[File:3 Cable Car on Hyde St with Alcatraz, SF, CA, jjron 25.03.2012.jpg|thumb|right|upright|A [[San Francisco cable car system|cable car]] ascending Hyde St, with [[Alcatraz]] on the bay behind]]
32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation in daily commuting to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States.<ref>{{cite news
| url = http://money.cnn.com/2007/06/13/real_estate/public_transit_commutes/index.htm
| title = New Yorkers are Top Transit Users
| accessdate =August 20, 2008
| author=Les Christie
| date = June 29, 2007
| work=CNNMoney.com
| publisher=Cable News Network
}}</ref> The [[San Francisco Municipal Railway]], known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.sfmta.com/cms/rsrtp/documents/09Chapter4-CurrentServiceaccessible-fy08PublicDraftforMTAB10-2.pdf |format=PDF| title=Fiscal Year 2008 Short Range Transit Plan: Chapter 4 | publisher=San Francisco Metropolitan Transportation Agency | accessdate=May 6, 2009}}</ref> The system operates both a combined light rail and subway system, the [[Muni Metro]], and a large bus network.<ref name="transportation">{{cite news
| title = Bay Area Traveler: Transportation Information
| work=SF Gate.com
| publisher=Hearst Communications Inc
| year = 2007 | month = March
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/traveler/guide/transportation/publictrans.shtml
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
| deadurl=yes
}} {{Dead link|date=August 2012|bot=RjwilmsiBot}}</ref> Additionally, it runs a [[F Market|historic streetcar line]], which runs on Market Street from [[The Castro|Castro Street]] to [[Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco|Fisherman's Wharf]].<ref name="transportation"/> It also operates the famous [[San Francisco cable car system|cable cars]],<ref name="transportation"/> which have been designated as a [[National Historic Landmark]] and are a major tourist attraction.<ref>{{cite web
| title = Report on San Francisco's Cable Cars
| publisher=San Francisco Beautiful
| year = 2007 | month = May
| url = http://www.sfbeautiful.org/images/press/5.07.Cable%20Car%20Report.pdf
| format = PDF
| accessdate =June 16, 2008}}</ref>
 
[[Bay Area Rapid Transit]], a regional Commuter Rail system, connects San Francisco with the [[East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)|East Bay]] through the underwater [[Transbay Tube]]. The line runs under Market Street to [[Civic Center, San Francisco|Civic Center]] where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern [[San Mateo County, California|San Mateo County]], to the [[San Francisco International Airport]], and [[Millbrae, California|Millbrae]].<ref name="transportation"/>
Another Commuter Rail system, [[Caltrain]], runs from San Francisco along the [[San Francisco Peninsula]] to [[San Jose, California|San Jose]].<ref name="transportation"/>
 
The [[Transbay Terminal]] serves as the terminus for long-range bus service (such as [[Greyhound Lines|Greyhound]]) and as a hub for regional bus systems [[AC Transit]] ([[Alameda County, California|Alameda]] & [[Contra Costa County, California|Contra Costa]] counties), [[SamTrans]] ([[San Mateo County, California|San Mateo County]]), and [[Golden Gate Transit]] (Marin and [[Sonoma County, California|Sonoma Counties]]).<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.transbaycenter.org/TransBay/content.aspx?id=36
| title = Project Overview – Regional Transit
| publisher=Transbay Transit Center
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061213231643/http://www.transbaycenter.org/TransBay/content.aspx?id=36
| archivedate = December 13, 2006
| accessdate =July 25, 2010}}</ref> [[Amtrak]] also runs a shuttle bus from San Francisco to its [[Emeryville (Amtrak station)|rail station]] across the Bay in [[Emeryville, California|Emeryville]].<ref>{{cite web
| url = http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Amtrak/am2Station/Station_Page&code=EMY
| title = Emeryville Station (EMY)
| publisher=Amtrak
| archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20071224092953/http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=Amtrak/am2Station/Station_Page&code=EMY
| archivedate=December 24, 2007
| accessdate =July 25, 2010
}}</ref> A small fleet of commuter and tourist [[ferries]] operate from the [[San Francisco Ferry Building|Ferry Building]] and [[Pier 39]] to points in [[Marin County, California|Marin County]], [[Oakland, California|Oakland]], and north to [[Vallejo, California|Vallejo]] in [[Solano County, California|Solano County]].<ref name="transportation"/>
 
Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco. 75,000 residents commute by bicycle per day.<ref name="2011 Bicycle Count Report">{{cite news
| last = | first =
| title = 2011 Bicycle Count Report
| work=SFMTA
| publisher=City of San Francisco
| date = December 2011
| url = http://www.sfmta.com/cms/rbikes/documents/2011BicycleCountReportsml_002.pdf
| accessdate =May 17, 2012
}}</ref>
 
Pedestrian traffic is a major mode of transport. In 2011, [[Walk Score]] ranked San Francisco the second most walkable city in the United States.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/07/20/BUUK1KCC67.DTL&tsp=1 |title=S.F., Oakland in top 10 most walkable U.S. cities |publisher=''San Francisco Chronicle'' |accessdate=July 20, 2011 |first=Carolyn |last=Said |date=July 20, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-10-most-walkable-us-cities-2011-07-20?link=MW_popular |title=The 10 most walkable U.S. cities |publisher=''MarketWatch'' |year=2011 |accessdate=July 20, 2011}}</ref>
 
===Airports===
[[File:International Terminal of San Francisco International Airport2.jpg|thumb|[[San Francisco International Airport]](SFO)]]
 
{{Main|San Francisco International Airport}}
Though located {{convert|13|mi|km}} south of downtown in unincorporated [[San Mateo County, California|San Mateo County]], [[San Francisco International Airport]] (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for [[United Airlines]], its largest tenant,<ref name="UAL">{{cite news
| last = Young | first = Eric
| title = Pact keeps United from flying away
| work=San Francisco Business Times | publisher=American City Business Journals
| date = April 2, 2004 | url = http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/stories/2004/04/05/story1.html
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
}}</ref> and serves as [[Virgin America]]'s principal base of operations.<ref name="VirginAmerica">{{cite news
| last = Raine | first = George
| title = Taking to the air: Low-fare startup Virgin America says it has the funding to fly
| work=San Francisco Chronicle | page = C-1 | publisher=Hearst Communications Inc
| date = December 9, 2005
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/12/09/VIRGIN.TMP
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
}}</ref> SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America.<ref name="intlterminalfactsheet">{{cite web
| title = Fact Sheet: International Terminal
| publisher=San Francisco International Airport
| year = 2007 | month = May
| url = http://www.flysfo.com/web/export/sites/default/download/about/news/pressres/fact-sheet/pdf/International_Terminal_Fact_Sheet.pdf
| format = PDF
| accessdate =June 16, 2008
}}</ref> In 2011, SFO was the 8th busiest airport in the U.S. and 22nd busiest in the world, handling over 40.9&nbsp;million passengers.<ref name="SFO-stats-2011">{{cite web
| title = Preliminary World Airport Traffic 2011 (Table 2 – TOTAL PASSENGER TRAFFIC 2011)
| publisher=Airports Council International
| date = March 27, 2012
| url = http://www.centreforaviation.com/files/analysis/70690/PR_2012-03-27_PreliminaryResults_2011.pdf
| accessdate =April 22, 2012}}</ref>
 
Located across the bay, [[Oakland International Airport]] is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across [[San Francisco Bay]], it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.
 
===Seaports===
[[File:FerryBuildingEmbarcaderoBayBridge.JPG|thumb|right|The [[San Francisco Ferry Building|Ferry Building]] along the [[The Embarcadero (San Francisco)|Embarcadero]]]]
{{Main|Port of San Francisco}}
The [[Port of San Francisco]] was once the largest and busiest seaport on the West Coast. It featured rows of [[piers]] perpendicular to the shore, where cargo from the moored ships was handled by cranes and manual labor and transported to nearby warehouses. The port handled cargo to and from trans-Pacific and Atlantic destinations, and was the West Coast center of the [[West coast lumber trade|lumber trade]]. The [[1934 West Coast Longshore Strike]], an important episode in the history of the [[Labor unions in the United States|American labor movement]], brought most ports to a standstill. The advent of [[container shipping]] made pier-based ports obsolete, and most commercial berths moved to the [[Port of Oakland]] and [[Port of Richmond (California)|Port of Richmond]]. A few active berths specializing in [[break bulk cargo]] remain alongside the [[Islais Creek]] Channel.
 
Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the [[Embarcadero Freeway]] reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the [[San Francisco Ferry Building|Ferry Building]], while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace. The port's other activities now focus on developing waterside assets to support recreation and tourism.
{{clear}}
 
==Foreign Affairs==
{{Main|Sister cities of San Francisco, California}}
San Francisco currently has 21 [[Sister Cities International|Sister Cities]].
 
===Diplomatic Missions===
{{Main|List of diplomatic missions in San Francisco}}
A total of 41 consulates-general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.
 
==See also==
{{portal|California|San Francisco Bay Area|New Spain}}
*[[List of people associated with San Francisco]]
*[[National Register of Historic Places listings in San Francisco, California]]
*[[Ships lost in San Francisco]]
{{clear}}
 
==References==
;Notes
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em|refs=
<ref name="Frisco okay">{{cite web
|url=http://www.sfgate.com/default/article/Frisco-that-once-verboten-term-for-the-city-by-2582886.php
|title=Frisco, that once-verboten term
|last1=Sullivan
|first1=James
|date=October 14, 2003
|work= SFGate
|publisher=San Francisco Chronicle
|accessdate=25 February 2013
}}</ref>
<ref name="Don't Call It Frisco">{{cite news
|title = Don't Call It Frisco
|url = http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hgoe82.htm
|accessdate =July 11, 2011
|newspaper = San Francisco Examiner, San Francisco Chronicle
|date = April 3, 1918|page = 6
}}</ref>
<ref name="Frisco">Though many residents still maintain that the nickname "Frisco" is taboo, many residents, especially younger and working-class natives, have kept this term alive and well. In any case, this is a matter of ongoing speculation that reflects certain cultural divisions within the city. {{cite news
| last = Sullivan | first = James
| title = Frisco, that once-verboten term for the city by the bay, is making a comeback among the young and hip. Herb Caen is spinning at warp speed.
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/10/14/DD67721.DTL
| work = San Francisco Chronicle
| page = D-1
| date = October 14, 2003
| accessdate =June 12, 2008
}}</ref>
<ref name="Friscophobia">Some tourists refer to San Francisco as "Frisco." However, locals discourage this. Samuel D. Cohen writes that many credit "Friscophobia" to newspaper columnist [[Herb Caen]], whose first book, published in 1953, was "Don't Call it Frisco" after a 1918 newspaper article of the same name. Caen was considered by many to be the recognized authority on what was, and what was not, beneath the city's dignity, and to him, Frisco was intolerable. {{cite web
| last = Cohen | first = Sam
| title = Locals know best: only tourists call it 'Frisco'
| work = Golden Gater Online
| publisher = San Francisco State University
| date = September 11, 1997
| url = http://www.journalism.sfsu.edu/www/pubs/gater/fall97/sept11/Frisco.html
| accessdate =July 13, 2008
}}{{dead link|date=August 2012}}</ref>
<ref name="The City that Knows How">{{cite web
| url = http://sfpl.org/index.php?pg=2000141201
| title = PPIE: The City That Knows How
| accessdate =June 14, 2008
| work = Amusing America
| publisher = San Francisco Public Library
| date = March 29, 2005
}}</ref>
<ref name="Baghdad by the Bay">{{cite book
| last = Caen | first = Herb
| authorlink = Herb Caen
| title = Baghdad-by-the-Bay
| publisher = Doubleday
| year = 1949
| location = Garden City, New York
| id = LC F869.S3 C12
| isbn = 978-0-89174-047-6
| oclc = 31060237
}}</ref>
<ref name="The Paris of the West">{{cite web
| url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jHvTZ1RL4I
| title = 1939 San Francisco in Color!!!
| accessdate =June 5, 2009
| work = UnknownWW2InColor
| publisher = UnknownWW2InColor (Ramano-Archives)
| year = 1939
| title = The City
}}</ref>
<ref name="Census 2010-GCT-PH1">{{cite web
| title = GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – Census Tract
| url = http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_SF1_GCTPH1.CY07
| work = [[2010 United States Census]] Summary File 1
| publisher = United States Census Bureau
| accessdate =July 11, 2011}}</ref>
<ref name="Census 2010-GCT-PL2">{{cite web
| title = GCT-PL2 – Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 – United States – Combined Statistical Area with Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Components; and for Puerto Rico
| url = http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_NSRD_GCTPL2.US40PR
| publisher = United States Census Bureau
| work = [[2010 United States Census]] Summary File 1
| accessdate =July 11, 2011
}}</ref>
}}
 
;Bibliography
{{Refbegin}}
<!-- Books & Journals cited in the Notes section -->
* {{cite book
|last=De La Perouse
|first = Jean Francois
|coauthors = Yamane, Linda Gonsalves; Margolin, Malcolm
|title = Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De La Perouse
|year=1989
|publisher=[[Heyday Books]]
|isbn = 978-0-930588-39-7
|oclc = 20368802 }}
* {{cite book
|last = Hansen
|first = Gladys
|title = San Francisco Almanac: Everything you want to know about the city
|publisher=Chronicle Books
|year = 1995
|isbn = 978-0-8118-0841-5
|oclc = 30702907}}
* {{cite journal
|last = London
|first = Jack
|title = The Story of an Eyewitness by Jack London
|journal=Collier's, the National Weekly
|date = May 5, 1906 }}
* {{cite book
|last = Richards
|first = Rand
|title = Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide
|publisher=Heritage House
|year = 1991
|isbn = 978-1-879367-00-5
|oclc = 214330849 }}
* {{cite book
|last = Ungaretti
|first = Lorri
|title = San Francisco's Richmond District
|publisher=Arcadia Publishing
|year = 2005
|isbn = 978-0-7385-3053-6
|oclc = 62249656 }}
* {{cite book | author=Wiley, Peter Booth | title=National trust guide San Francisco: America’s guide for architecture and history travelers | publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. | year=2000 | isbn=978-0-471-19120-9 | oclc=44313415}}
{{Refend}}
 
;Further reading
{{Refbegin}}
* {{cite book | year= 1989 | publisher=Dorset Press | title=The Barbary Coast: An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld | author=Asbury, Hubert | isbn=978-0-88029-428-7 | oclc= 22719465 }}
* {{cite book | author=Bronson, William | title=The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned | publisher=Chronicle Books |year=2006 | isbn=978-0-8118-5047-6 | oclc=65223734 }}
* {{cite book | year= 1987 | publisher=Square Books | title=Spanning the Gate | author=Cassady, Stephen | isbn=978-0-916290-36-8 | oclc= 15229396 }}
* {{cite book | year= 1998 | publisher=Celestial Arts (Reissue edition) | title=High Steel: Building the Bridges Across San Francisco Bay | author=Dillon, Richard H. | isbn=978-0-88029-428-7 | oclc= 22719465 }}
* {{ cite book | title=Literary San Francisco: A pictorial history from its beginnings to the present day | author=Ferlinghetti, Lawrence | isbn=978-0-06-250325-1 | year=1980 | publisher=Harper & Row | oclc=6683688 }}
* {{cite book | year=2002 | publisher=University of California Press | title=City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco | author=Hartman, Chester | isbn=978-0-520-08605-0 | oclc=48579085 }}
* {{ cite book | title=Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California | author=Holliday, J. S. | isbn = 978-0-520-21402-6 | year=1999 | publisher=University of California Press | oclc=37545551 }}
* {{cite book | year= 1997 | publisher=University of Illinois Press | title=San Francisco, 1846–1856: From Hamlet to City | author=Lotchin, Roger W. | isbn=978-0-252-06631-3 | oclc= 35650934 }}
* {{cite book | year= 1981 | publisher=Heydey Books | title=The Ohlone Way: Indian Life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area | author=Margolin, Malcolm | isbn=978-0-930588-01-4 | oclc= 4628382 }}
* {{cite book | year= 1978 | publisher=Harper Collins | title=Tales of the City | author=Maupin, Armistead | isbn=978-0-06-096404-7 | oclc= 29847673 }}
* Solnit, Rebecca. ''Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas'' (University of California Press, 2010). 144 pp.&nbsp;ISBN 978-0-520-26250-8; [https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=34658 online review]
* {{cite book | year= 1971 | publisher=Stein and Day | title=The San Francisco Earthquake | author=Thomas, Gordon and Witts, Max Morgan| isbn=978-0-8128-1360-9 | oclc= 154735 }}
* Winfield, P.H., ''The charter of San Francisco'' (The fortnightly review Vol. 157–58:2 (1945), p.&nbsp;69–75)
{{Refend}}
 
==External links==
{{Sister project links|San Francisco|voy=San Francisco}}
* [http://www.sfgov.org/ Official website for the City and County of San Francisco]
* [http://transit.511.org/ Bay Area Public Transit Info, Schedules and Maps]
* [http://www.sfmuseum.org/ Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco]
 
{{Geographic location
|Centre = San Francisco
|North = [[Sausalito, California|Sausalito]]<br /><small>[[Marin County, California|Marin County]]</small>
|Northeast = [[Richmond, California|Richmond]]<br /><small>[[Contra Costa County, California|Contra Costa County]]</small><br />[[Berkeley, California|Berkeley]]<br /><small>[[Alameda County, California|Alameda County]]</small>
|East = [[Alameda, California|Alameda]], [[Oakland, California|Oakland]]<br /><small>[[Alameda County, California|Alameda County]]</small>
|Southeast = [[San Leandro, California|San Leandro]]<br /><small>[[Alameda County, California|Alameda County]]</small>
|South = [[Brisbane, California|Brisbane]], [[Daly City, California|Daly City]]<br /><small>[[San Mateo County, California|San Mateo County]]</small>
|Southwest =
|West = Pacific Ocean
|Northwest =
}}
{{Navboxes
|title = Articles relating to the City and County of San Francisco
|list =
{{San Francisco attractions}}
{{Streets in San Francisco}}
{{Neighborhoods of San Francisco}}
{{San Francisco}}
{{SF Bay Area}}
{{California cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}
{{California county seats}}
{{California}}
{{USLargestCities}}
{{USLargestMetros}}
{{World's most populous urban areas}}
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}}
 
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