"වස්කෝ ද ගාමා" හි සංශෝධන අතර වෙනස්කම්

සිංහල නොවන අන්තර්ගතය මුළුමනින් පාහේ ඉවත් කෙරිණි
සුළු (රොබෝ එකතු කරමින්: ilo:Vasco da Gama)
(සිංහල නොවන අන්තර්ගතය මුළුමනින් පාහේ ඉවත් කෙරිණි)
 
{{translate}}
{{වෙනත් භාවිතා}}
 
'''[[දොන් (අභිධානය)|දොන්]] වස්කෝ ද ගාමා''' (1460 හෝ 1469 ගණන් – 24 දෙසැම්බර් 1524), [[විඩිගෙයිරා| විඩිගෙයිරාහී ]] පළමු [[විඩිගෙයිරාහී සිටුවරයා|සිටුවරයා]], [[හෙළිදරව් යුගය තුල පෘතුගාලය|පෘතුගීසි ගවේෂකයෙක්]] වූ අතර, [[හෙළිදරව් යුගය|හෙළිදරව් යුගයෙහි]] ඉමහත් සාර්ථකත්වයක් ළඟාකරගත් එක් පුද්ගලයෙකු සහ [[යුරෝපය|යුරෝපයෙහි]] සිට [[ඉන්දියාව|ඉන්දියාවට]] සෘජු ලෙසින් යාත්‍රා කල පළමු නැව් පෙළෙහි අණ දෙන නිලධාරියාද විය.
{{Infobox person
| name = Vasco da Gama
| image = Vasco-da-gama-2.jpg
| caption =
| birth_date = 1460
| birth_place = [[Sines, Portugal|Sines]], [[Alentejo]], [[Portugal]]
| death_date = 24 December 1524 (aged 64)
| death_place = [[Kochi (India)|Kochi, India]]
| signature = Vasco da gama signature.svg
| occupation = Explorer, [[List of colonial heads of Portuguese India|Governor of Portuguese India]]
}}
 
'''Vasco da Gama''', 1st [[Count of Vidigueira]] ({{IPA-pt|ˈvaʃku dɐ ˈɡɐmɐ}}) ([[Sines, Portugal|Sines]] or [[Vidigueira]], [[Alentejo]], [[Portugal]], around 1460 or 1469 – 24 December 1524 in [[Kochi (India)|Kochi]], [[India]]) was a [[Portugal in the Age of Discovery|Portuguese explorer]], one of the most successful in the European [[Age of Discovery]] and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from [[Europe]] to [[India]]. For a short time in 1524 he was Governor of [[Portuguese India]] under the title of [[Viceroy]].
 
== Early life ==
Vasco da Gama was born in either 1460<ref>[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html Modern History Sourcebook: Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497-1498 CE], fordham.edu, Retrieved June 27, 2007</ref> or 1469<ref>[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06374a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia: Vasco da Gama] Retrieved June 27, 2007</ref> in [[Sines, Portugal|Sines]], on the southwest coast of Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, consisted of little more than a cluster of whitewashed, red-tiled cottages, tenanted chiefly by fisherfolk.
[[ගොනුව:Sines06_edit1.jpg|thumb|upright|Statue of Vasco da Gama at his birthplace, [[Sines, Portugal]]]]
Vasco da Gama's father was [[Estêvão da Gama (15th century)|Estêvão da Gama]]. In the 1460s he was a [[knight]] in the household of the Duke of [[Viseu]], [[Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu|Dom Fernando]],<ref name="ames">{{cite book|title=The Globe Encompassed|author=Ames, Glenn J.|page=27|isbn=0131933884|year=2008|accessdate=2008-01-10}}</ref> who appointed him Alcaide-Mór or Civil Governor of Sines and enabled him to receive a small revenue from taxes on soap making in [[Estremoz]].
 
Estêvão da Gama was married to [[Don (honorific)|Dona]] Isabel Sodré, daughter of João Sodré (also known as João de Resende). Sodré, who was of [[England|English]] descent, had links to the household of Prince Diogo, [[Duke of Viseu]], son of king [[Edward I of Portugal]] and governor of the military [[Order of Christ]].<ref>Subrahmanyam 1997, p.61</ref>
 
Little is known of Vasco da Gama's early life. The Portuguese historian Teixeira de Aragão suggests that Gama studied at the inland town of [[Évora]], which is where he may have learned mathematics and navigation. It is evident that Gama knew astronomy well, and it is possible that he may have studied under the astronomer [[Abraham Zacuto]].<ref>Subrahmanyam 1997, p.62</ref>
 
In 1492 King [[John II of Portugal]] sent Gama to the port of [[Setúbal]], south of [[Lisbon]] and to the [[Algarve]] to seize [[France|French]] ships in retaliation for peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping - a task that Vasco rapidly and effectively performed.
 
== Exploration before Gama ==
From the early fifteenth century, the nautical school of [[Henry the Navigator]] had been extending Portuguese knowledge of the African coastline. From the 1460s, the goal had become one of rounding that continent's southern extremity to gain easier access to the riches of India (mainly black pepper and other spices) through a reliable sea route.
 
The [[Republic of Venice]] had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe and Asia. Portugal hoped to use the route pioneered by [[Bartolomeu Dias]] to break the Venetian trading monopoly.
 
By the time Gama was ten years old, these long-term plans were coming to fruition. [[Bartolomeu Dias]] had returned from rounding the Cape of Good Hope, having explored as far as the [[Fish River, Eastern Cape|Fish River]] (''Rio do Infante'') in modern-day [[South Africa]] and having verified that the unknown coast stretched away to the northeast.
 
Concurrent land exploration during the reign of [[João II of Portugal]] supported the theory that India was reachable by sea from the Atlantic Ocean. [[Pero da Covilhã]] and [[Afonso de Paiva]] were sent via [[Barcelona]], [[Naples]] and [[Rhodes]], into [[Alexandria]] and thence to [[Aden]], [[Hormuz]] and [[India]], which gave credence to the theory.
 
It remained for an explorer to prove the link between the findings of Dias and those of da Covilhã and de Paiva and to connect these separate segments into a potentially lucrative trade route into the Indian Ocean. The task, originally given to Vasco da Gama's father, was offered to Vasco by [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]] on the strength of his record of protecting Portuguese trading stations along the African [[Gold Coast (British colony)|Gold Coast]] from depredations by the French.
 
== First voyage ==
[[ගොනුව:Gama route 1.svg|300px|thumb|The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499)]]
On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from [[Lisbon]]. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator.<ref name="Foundations">{{cite book
| title=Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1850
|published=1977
|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vtZtMBLJ7GgC&pg=PA184&lpg=PA184&dq=Nicolau+Coelho+died&source=bl&ots=LdVMjbnkNO&sig=e8Zio7xgQhqoJP49_pnqGZOTRMM&hl=en&ei=RB7oS__jH4aglAfE_ZzXAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CCgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Nicolau%20Coelho&f=false |first1= Bailey W.
|last1=Diffie |first2= George D. |last2=Winius
| isbn= 978-0816608508
| page=177
| volume=1
| series=Europe and the World in the Age of Expansion}}</ref><ref>[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html da Gama's ''Round Africa to India''], fordham.edu Retrieved 16 November 2006</ref> The navigators included Portugal's most experienced, Pero de Alenquer, [[Pedro Escobar]], João de Coimbra, and Afonso Gonçalves. It is not known for certain how many people were in each ship's crew but approximately 55 returned, and two ships were lost. Two of the vessels were ''as naus'' or newly built for the voyage, possibly a [[caravel]] and a supply boat.<ref name="Foundations"/> The four ships were:
* The ''[[São Gabriel (ship)|São Gabriel]]'', commanded by Vasco da Gama; a [[carrack]] of 178 tons, length 27 m, width 8.5 m, [[draft (hull)|draft]] 2.3 m, sails of 372 m²
* The ''São Rafael'', whose commander was his brother [[Paulo da Gama]]; similar dimensions to the ''São Gabriel''
* The [[caravel]] ''Berrio'', slightly smaller than the former two (later re-baptised São Miguel), commanded by [[Nicolau Coelho]]
* A storage ship of unknown name, commanded by Gonçalo Nunes, later lost near the Bay of São Brás, along the east coast of Africa<ref name="ames"/>
 
=== Journey to the Cape ===
[[ගොනුව:Cross daGama2.jpg|thumb|upright|Monument to the Cross of Vasco da Gama at the [[Cape of Good Hope]], [[South Africa]]]]
The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July 1497, following the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via [[Tenerife]] and the [[Cape Verde]] Islands. After reaching the coast of present day [[Sierra Leone]], Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the [[Equator]] and seeking the [[South Atlantic]] [[westerlies]] that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in 1487. This course proved successful and on November 4, 1497, the expedition made landfall on the African coast. For over three months the ships had sailed more than 6,000 miles of open ocean, by far the longest journey out of sight of land made by the time.<ref name="Foundations"/><ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= [[W. W. Norton & Company]] |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |pages= 177–178}}</ref>
 
By December 16, the fleet had passed the [[Great Fish River]] - where Dias had turned back - and sailed into waters previously unknown to Europeans. With Christmas pending, Gama and his crew gave the coast they were passing the name [[KwaZulu-Natal Province|Natal]], which carried the connotation of "birth of Christ" in [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]].
 
[[Arab]]-controlled territory on the East African coast was an integral part of the network of trade in the Indian Ocean. Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique. With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, Gama was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler and soon the local populace became suspicious of Gama and his men. Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation.<ref>[http://www.oldnewspublishing.com/dagamma.htm Vasco da Gamma Seeks Sea Route to India], Oldnewspublishing.com. Retrieved 8 July 2006</ref>
 
=== Mombasa ===
In the vicinity of modern [[Kenya]], the expedition resorted to [[piracy]], looting Arab merchant ships - generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons. The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of [[Mombasa]] but were met with hostility and soon departed.
 
=== Malindi ===
[[ගොනුව:Pillar of Vasco da Gama.jpg|thumb|Pillar of Vasco da Gama in [[Malindi]], {{Coord|3|13|25|S|40|7|47.8|E|type:landmark|display=inline}}.]]
In February 1498, Vasco da Gama continued north, landing at the friendlier port of [[Malindi]] - whose leaders were then in conflict with those of Mombasa - and there the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot whose knowledge of the [[monsoon]] winds allowed him to bring the expedition the rest of the way to [[Calicut]] (Kozhikode), located on the southwest coast of India. Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator [[Ibn Majid]], but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.<ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= W. W. Norton & Company |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |pages= 178–179}}</ref> Also, none of the Portuguese historians of the time mention Ibn Majid.
 
=== Calicut, India ===
The fleet arrived in [[Kappad]] near [[Calicut]], [[India]] on 20 May 1498. The King of Calicut, the [[Saamoothiri]] (Zamorin), who was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnani, returned to Calicut on hearing the news of the European fleets's arrival. The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3,000 armed Nairs, but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results. The presents that da Gama sent to the Zamorin as gifts from Dom Manuel--four cloaks of scarlet cloth, six hats, four branches of corals, twelve ''almasares'', a box with seven brass vessels, a chest of sugar, two barrels of oil and a cask of honey--were trivial, and failed to cut any ice. While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador!<ref>Castaneda, Herman Lopes de, The First Book of the Historie of the Discoveries and Conquests of the East India by the Portingals, London, 1582, in Kerr, Robert (ed.) A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels Vol. II, London, 1811.</ref> Vasco da Gama's request for permission to leave a factor behind him in charge of the merchandise he could not sell was turned down by the King, who insisted that da Gama pay customs duty--preferably in gold--like any other trader, which strained the relation between the two. Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen Mukkuva fishermen off with him by force.<ref>[[M.G.S. Narayanan]], Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications (The incident is mentioned by [[Camoes]] in [[The Lusiads]], wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible.")</ref> Nevertheless, da Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo that was worth sixty times the cost of the expedition.
 
=== Return ===
[[ගොනුව:Vascodagama.JPG|thumb|upright|Vasco da Gama lands at [[Calicut]], May 20, 1498.]]
 
Vasco da Gama set sail for home on 29 August 1498. Eager to leave he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns, which was still blowing onshore. Crossing the Indian Ocean to India, sailing with the monsoon wind, had taken Gama's ships only 23 days. The return trip across the ocean, sailing against the wind, took 132 days, and Gama arrived in [[Malindi]] on 7 January 1499. During this trip, approximately half of the crew died, and many of the rest were afflicted with [[scurvy]]. Two of Gama's ships made it back to Portugal, arriving in July and August of 1499.<ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= W. W. Norton & Company |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |page= 180}}</ref>
 
Vasco da Gama returned to Portugal in September 1499 and was richly rewarded as the man who had brought to fruition a plan that had taken eighty years to fulfill. He was given the title "Admiral of the Indian Seas,"<ref>{{cite book|title=The Globe Encompassed|author=Ames, Glenn J.|page=28|isbn=0131933884|year=2008|accessdate=2008-01-10}}</ref> and his feudal rights to Sines were confirmed.<ref>Subrahmanyam 1997, p.169</ref> [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]] also awarded the perpetual title of ''Dom'' ([[lord]]) to Gama, as well as to his brothers and sisters and to all of their descendants.
 
The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese economy, and other consequences soon followed. For example, Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the ''Contra Costa'', was essential to Portuguese interests; its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather. One significant result was the colonization of [[Mozambique]] by the Portuguese Crown.
 
However, Gama's achievements were somewhat dimmed by his failure to bring any trade goods of interest to the nations of India. Moreover, the sea route was fraught with its own perils - his fleet went more than thirty days without seeing land and only 60 of his 180 companions, on one of his three ships, returned to Portugal in 1498. Nevertheless, Gama's initial journey opened a direct sea route to Asia.
 
== Second voyage ==
{{මූලික| 4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502)}}
 
On 12 February 1502, Gama commnanded the [[4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502)|4th Portuguese ''Armada'' to India]], a fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men, with the object of enforcing Portuguese interests in the east. On reaching India in October 1502, Gama started capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters. While the Zamorin was willing to sign a treaty<ref>[http://66.102.7.104/u/northparkuniversity?q=cache:xiWVHIS7CAoJ:www.northpark.edu/history/webChron/WestEurope/DaGama.CP.html+DaGama+Mecca&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&ie=UTF-8 Vasco da Gama Arrives in India 1498] (Google cached version) Dana Thompson, Felicity Ruiz, Michelle Mejiak; December 15, 1998. Retrieved 8 July 2006</ref>, Gama made a preposterous call to the [[Hindu]] King to expel all Muslims from Calicut which was naturally turned down. He bombarded the city that destroyed several houses on the sea shore and captured several rice vessels and barbariously cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses.<ref>Sreedhara Menon. A. A Survey of Kerala History(1967), p.152. D. C. Books Kottayam</ref> He returned to Portugal in September 1503. He then sailed south to [[Cochin]], a small vassal kingdom of Calicut where he was given a warm welcome. He returned to Europe with silk and gold.
 
Once he had reached the northern parts of the Indian Ocean, Gama waited for a ship to return from [[Mecca]] and seized all the merchandise on it. He then ordered the hundreds of passengers be locked in the hold and the ship - named ''Mîrî'', and which contained many wealthy Muslim merchants&nbsp;— to be set on fire.<ref>Subrahmanyam 1997, p.205</ref>
 
Gama assaulted and exacted tribute from the Arab-controlled port of [[Kilwa (district)|Kilwa]] in East Africa, one of those ports involved in frustrating the Portuguese. His ships engaged in [[privateer]] actions against Arab merchant ships.
 
== Third voyage ==
[[ගොනුව:Vasco da Gama Jerónimos 2008-1.jpg|thumb|left|Tomb of Vasco da Gama in the [[Jerónimos Monastery]] in Belém, Lisbon]]
[[ගොනුව:St-Francis-Church.jpg|thumb|right|St. Francis Church, Cochin|St. Francis CSI Church, in [[Cochin|Kochi]]. Vasco da Gama, died in Kochi in 1524 when he was on his third visit to India. His body was originally buried in this church.]]
 
In 1519 he became the first [[Count of Vidigueira]], a [[count]] [[title of nobility|title]] created by King [[Manuel I of Portugal]] on a royal decree issued in Évora in December 29, after an agreement with Dom [[Jaime, Duke of Braganza]], who cede him on payment the towns of [[Vidigueira]] and Vila dos Frades, granting Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related,<ref>Vasco Da Gama, Ernest George Ravenstein, "A journal of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497-1499", p. [[Hakluyt Society]], Issue 99 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, ISBN 81-206-1136-5</ref> thus becoming the first Portuguese count ([[earl]]) who was not born with royal blood.
 
Having acquired a fearsome reputation as a "fixer" of problems that arose in India, Vasco da Gama was sent to the subcontinent once more in 1524. The intention was that he was to replace the incompetent [[Eduardo de Menezes]] as viceroy (representative) of the Portuguese possessions, but Gama contracted [[malaria]] not long after arriving in [[Goa]] and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas Eve in 1524.
 
His body was first buried at [[St. Francis Church, Cochin|St. Francis Church]], which was located at [[Fort Kochi]] in the city of [[Kochi (India)|Kochi]], but his remains were returned to Portugal in 1539. The body of Vasco da Gama was re-interred in Vidigueira in a casket decorated with gold and jewels.
 
The [[Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon|Monastery of the Hieronymites]] in [[Belém, Lisbon|Belém]] was erected in honour of his voyage to India.
 
== Acts of Cruelty ==
Vasco da Gama inflicted acts of cruelty upon competing traders and local inhabitants.<ref name="M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut 2006">M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications</ref><ref>Sreedhara Menon. A Survey of Kerala History (1967), D. C. Books Kottayam</ref> During his second voyage to Calicut, Gama intercepted a ship of Muslim pilgrims at [[Madayi]] travelling from Calicut to Mecca. Described by the Portuguese historian [[Gaspar Correia]] as one that is unequalled in cold- blooded cruelty, Gama looted the ship with over 400 pilgrims on board including 50 women, locked the passengers, the owner and an ambassador from Egypt and burnt them to death. They offered their wealth which 'could ransom all the Christian slaves in the [[Kingdom of Fez]] and much more' but were not spared. Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy.'<ref>Nambiar O.K, The Kunjalis- Admirals of Calicut, Bombay, 1963.</ref>
 
After demanding the expulsion of Muslims from Calicut to the [[Hindu]] Zamorin, the latter sent the high priest Talappana [[Namboothiri]] (the very same person who conducted Gama to the Zamorin's chamber during his much celebrated first visit to Calicut in May 1498) for talks, Gama called him a spy, ordered the priests' lips and ears to be cut off and after sewing a pair of dog's ears to his head, sent him away.<ref name="M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut 2006"/>
 
== Legacy ==
[[ගොනුව:Portugal 1521-1557.gif|thumb|400px|Map of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of [[John III of Portugal|John III]] (1502–1557).<!--What does the green shading mean, and what do the red dots mean?-->]]
 
Gama and his wife, [[Catarina de Ataíde]], had six sons and one daughter: Dom Francisco da Gama, 2nd [[Count of Vidigueira]]; Dom [[Estêvão da Gama (16th century)|Estevão da Gama]], 11th [[Governor]] of [[Portuguese India|India]] (1540–1542); Dom Paulo da Gama; Dom Pedro da Silva da Gama; Dom Álvaro de Ataíde da Gama, [[Captain-major|Captain]] of [[Malacca]]; Dona Isabel de Ataíde da Gama and Dom [[Cristovão da Gama]], a [[martyr]] in [[Ethiopian Empire|Ethiopia]]. His male line issue became extinct in 1747, though the title went through female line.
 
As much as anyone after Henry the Navigator, Gama was responsible for Portugal's success as an early colonising power. Beside the fact of the first voyage itself, it was his astute mix of politics and war on the other side of the world that placed Portugal in a prominent position in [[Indian Ocean trade]]. Following Gama's initial voyage, the Portuguese crown realized that securing outposts on the eastern coast of Africa would prove vital to maintaining national trade routes to the Far East.
 
Nevertheless, Vasco da Gama's international fame has more often been argued as due to historical reasons for which he was hardly responsible.<ref>Panickar K.M., A History of Kerala (1959) Annamalai University</ref> It is to be noted that unlike [[Christopher Columbus|Columbus]] or [[Ferdinand Magellan|Magellan]], Gama was never sailing in uncharted waters. He was not making a discovery as India was no ''terra incognita'' as it was already in contact with Europe, Africa and Asia for ages. The seafarers of African coast from where Gama set out for Calicut knew the routes and winds and more importantly he was accompanied by a Portuguese- knowing Arab merchant provided by the Sultan of [[Melinda|Malindi]] in East Africa.<ref>Sreedhara Menon A. A Survey of Kerala History(1967), p.152. D. C. Books Kottayam</ref> Gama, in fact pioneered modern European Colonialism built up by men who combined greed with diplomacy and covered up the greed with sophistication<ref>M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth. p.109., Calicut University Press (2006)</ref>
 
Gama's arrival at Calicut and the so- called discovery of sea route to India was not an important event in the international trade scene. The official ''Kozhikode Grandhavari'' (Calicut Chronicles) did not even deem the episode of Gama meeting the Zamorin worthy of separate reference. It looms large in our minds when we look back in search of a specific, dramatic starting point for modern European colonialism in India and the rest of Asia. It was pleasing to the western mind as it enhanced the prestige of Europe recovering from the throes of the [[Dark Ages]].<ref>Pearson, M. N. (ed.) India and the Indian Ocean 1500-1800, Calcutta University: Oxford University Press, 1987</ref>
 
The Portuguese [[national epic]], the ''[[Lusíadas]]'' of [[Luís de Camões|Luís Vaz de Camões]], largely concerns Vasco da Gama's voyages. The 1865 [[opera]] ''[[L'Africaine]]: Opéra en Cinq Actes'', composed by [[Giacomo Meyerbeer]] and [[Eugène Scribe]], prominently includes the character of Vasco da Gama. A 1989 production of the composition by the [[San Francisco Opera]] featured noted [[tenor]] [[Placido Domingo]] in the role of Gama.<ref>Subrahmanyam 1997, p.2</ref> The 19th century composer, [[Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray]], composed an eponymous 1872 opera based on Gama's life and exploits at sea.
 
The port city of [[Vasco da Gama, Goa|Vasco da Gama]] in [[Goa]] is named after him, as is the crater [[Vasco da Gama (crater)|Vasco da Gama]] on the [[Moon]]. There are three football clubs in Brazil (including [[Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama]]) and [[Vasco Sports Club]] in Goa that were also named after him. There exists a church in [[Kochi (India)|Kochi]], [[Kerala]] called [[Vasco da Gama Church]], and a private residence on the island of [[Saint Helena]]. The suburb of Vasco in Cape Town also honours him.
 
A few places in Lisbon's [[Parque das Nações]] are named after the explorer, such as the [[Vasco da Gama Bridge]], [[Vasco da Gama Tower]] and the ''Centro Comercial Vasco da Gama'' shopping centre.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.centrovascodagama.pt/ |title=Centro Vasco da Gama |publisher=Centrovascodagama.pt |date= |accessdate=2009-01-29}}</ref> The [[Lisbon Oceanarium|Oceanário]] in the Parque das Nações, has a mascot of a cartoon diver with the name of "Vasco", who is named after the explorer.<ref>[[:pt:Oceanário de Lisboa|Wikipedia: Oceanário de Lisboa]] {{pt}}</ref>
 
South African musician [[Hugh Masekela]] recorded an anti-colonialist song entitled "Vasco da Gama (The Sailor Man)", which contains the lyrics "Vasco da Gama was no friend of mine". He later recorded another version of this song under the name "Colonial Man".
 
== See also ==
*[[Chronology of European exploration of Asia]]
*[[Count of Vidigueira]]
*[[Ferdinand Magellan]]
*[[Francisco de Almeida]]
*[[Portuguese India]]
*[[Spice trade]]
 
== References ==
{{Reflist|2}}
 
== Bibliography ==
*{{cite book |last=Ames |first=Glenn J. |title=Vasco da Gama: Renaissance Crusader |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2004 |publisher=Longman |location= |isbn=0321092821 |pages= }}
*{{cite book |last=Ames |first=Glenn J. |title=The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500–1700 |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |publisher=Prentice Hall |location= |isbn=978-0131933880 |pages= }}
*{{cite book |last=[[Gaspar Correia|Corrêa]] |first=Gaspar |title=The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama, and His Viceroyalty |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2001 |publisher=Adamant Media Corporation |location= |isbn=1402195435 |pages= }} Facsimile reprint of a 1869 edition by the [[Hakluyt Society]], London.
*{{cite book|last=Disney|first=Anthony|title= The Indian Ocean in World History|coauthors=Emily Booth (eds.) |year=2000 |publisher=Oxford University Press|location=New Delhi and New York |isbn= }}
*{{cite book|last=Fernández-Armesto |first=Felipe |title=Civilizations |authorlink=Felipe Fernández-Armesto|year=2001|publisher=Macmillan|location=Basingstoke and Oxford, U.K.|isbn=0743202481}}
*{{cite book |last=Fernández-Armesto |first=Felipe |title=Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year=2006 |publisher=W. W. Norton |location= |isbn=978-0393062595 |pages=177–181 }}
*{{cite book |last=Jayne |first=Kingsley Garland |title=Vasco Da Gama and his successors, 1460–1580 |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1910 |publisher=Methuen |location=London |isbn= |pages= |url=http://www.archive.org/details/vascodagamahissu00jaynuoft }}
*{{cite book |last=Panikkar |first=K. M. |title=Asia and Western Dominance: A Survey of the Vasco da Gama Epoch of Asian History, 1498–1945 |authorlink=Kavalam Madhava Panikkar |coauthors= |editions=new ed. |year=1959 |publisher=Allen & Unwin |location=London |isbn= |id={{ASIN|B000Q5T6X6}} |pages= |url=http://www.archive.org/details/asiaandwesterndo009963mbp }}
*{{cite book |last=Ravenstein |first=E. G. |title=A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497–1499 |authorlink=Ernst Georg Ravenstein |coauthors=ed. and trans. |year=1898 |publisher=Hakluyt Society |location=London|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=13stAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:Vasco+inauthor:Ravenstein&lr=&num=30&as_brr=0&ei=Lzm2R6iwEo3AsQPrtv2RBQ }} (reissued by [[Cambridge University Press]], 2010. ISBN 978-1-108-01296-6)
*{{cite book|last=Russell-Wood|first=A. J. R. |title=A World on the Move: The Portuguese in Africa, Asia, and America, 1415–1808|year=1993 |publisher=Macmillan |location= |isbn=978-0312094270}}
*{{cite book|last=Subrahmanyam |first=Sanjay |title=The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama |coauthors= |year=1997 |publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0521470728 |pages= }}
*{{cite book |last=Towle |first=George Makepeace |title=Vasco da Gama, his voyages and adventures |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=c. 1878 |publisher=Lothrop, Lee & Shepard |location=Boston |isbn= |url=http://www.archive.org/details/vascodagamahisvo00towl }}
 
== External links ==
{{commons|Vasco da Gama}}
* [http://www.prominentpeople.co.za/people/35.php Vasco da Gama], prominentpeople.co.za
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html Vasco da Gama's ''Round Africa to India''], fordham.edu
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/vasco.html Vasco da Gama web tutorial with animated maps], ucalgary.ca
* [http://sify.com/itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13233617 Brief description of Vasco da Gama's journeys], sify.com
 
{{Persondata
|NAME=da Gama, Vasco
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
|SHORT DESCRIPTION=Portuguese explorer
|DATE OF BIRTH=c. 1469
|PLACE OF BIRTH= [[Sines, Portugal|Sines]], [[Alentejo]], [[Portugal]]
|DATE OF DEATH=December 24, 1524
|PLACE OF DEATH=[[Kochi (India)|Kochi]], [[India]]
}}
{{DEFAULTSORT:Da Gama, Vasco}}
[[ප්‍රවර්ගය:1524 deaths]]
"https://si.wikipedia.org/wiki/විශේෂ:MobileDiff/234260" වෙතින් සම්ප්‍රවේශනය කෙරිණි