"වස්කෝ ද ගාමා" හි සංශෝධන අතර වෙනස්කම්

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සුළු (r2.7.2) (රොබෝ එකතු කරමින්: my:ဗတ်စကို ဒဂါးမား; cosmetic changes)
== Early life ==
Vasco da Gama was born in either 1460<ref>[http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.html Modern History Sourcebook: Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497-1498 CE], fordham.edu, Retrieved June 27, 2007</ref> or 1469<ref>[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06374a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia: Vasco da Gama] Retrieved June 27, 2007</ref> in [[Sines, Portugal|Sines]], on the southwest coast of Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas. Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, consisted of little more than a cluster of whitewashed, red-tiled cottages, tenanted chiefly by fisherfolk.
[[Fileගොනුව:Sines06_edit1.jpg|thumb|upright|Statue of Vasco da Gama at his birthplace, [[Sines, Portugal]]]]
Vasco da Gama's father was [[Estêvão da Gama (15th century)|Estêvão da Gama]]. In the 1460s he was a [[knight]] in the household of the Duke of [[Viseu]], [[Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu|Dom Fernando]],<ref name="ames">{{cite book|title=The Globe Encompassed|author=Ames, Glenn J.|page=27|isbn=0131933884|year=2008|accessdate=2008-01-10}}</ref> who appointed him Alcaide-Mór or Civil Governor of Sines and enabled him to receive a small revenue from taxes on soap making in [[Estremoz]].
 
 
== First voyage ==
[[Fileගොනුව:Gama route 1.svg|300px|thumb|The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499)]]
On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from [[Lisbon]]. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator.<ref name="Foundations">{{cite book
| title=Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1850
 
=== Journey to the Cape ===
[[Fileගොනුව:Cross daGama2.jpg|thumb|upright|Monument to the Cross of Vasco da Gama at the [[Cape of Good Hope]], [[South Africa]]]]
The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July 1497, following the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via [[Tenerife]] and the [[Cape Verde]] Islands. After reaching the coast of present day [[Sierra Leone]], Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the [[Equator]] and seeking the [[South Atlantic]] [[westerlies]] that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in 1487. This course proved successful and on November 4, 1497, the expedition made landfall on the African coast. For over three months the ships had sailed more than 6,000 miles of open ocean, by far the longest journey out of sight of land made by the time.<ref name="Foundations"/><ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= [[W. W. Norton & Company]] |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |pages= 177–178}}</ref>
 
 
=== Malindi ===
[[Fileගොනුව:Pillar of Vasco da Gama.jpg|thumb|Pillar of Vasco da Gama in [[Malindi]], {{Coord|3|13|25|S|40|7|47.8|E|type:landmark|display=inline}}.]]
In February 1498, Vasco da Gama continued north, landing at the friendlier port of [[Malindi]] - whose leaders were then in conflict with those of Mombasa - and there the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot whose knowledge of the [[monsoon]] winds allowed him to bring the expedition the rest of the way to [[Calicut]] (Kozhikode), located on the southwest coast of India. Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator [[Ibn Majid]], but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.<ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= W. W. Norton & Company |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |pages= 178–179}}</ref> Also, none of the Portuguese historians of the time mention Ibn Majid.
 
 
=== Return ===
[[Fileගොනුව:Vascodagama.JPG|thumb|upright|Vasco da Gama lands at [[Calicut]], May 20, 1498.]]
 
Vasco da Gama set sail for home on 29 August 1498. Eager to leave he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns, which was still blowing onshore. Crossing the Indian Ocean to India, sailing with the monsoon wind, had taken Gama's ships only 23 days. The return trip across the ocean, sailing against the wind, took 132 days, and Gama arrived in [[Malindi]] on 7 January 1499. During this trip, approximately half of the crew died, and many of the rest were afflicted with [[scurvy]]. Two of Gama's ships made it back to Portugal, arriving in July and August of 1499.<ref>{{cite book |last= Fernandez-Armesto |first= Felipe |title= Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration |year= 2006 |publisher= W. W. Norton & Company |isbn= 0-393-06259-7 |page= 180}}</ref>
 
== Third voyage ==
[[Fileගොනුව:Vasco da Gama Jerónimos 2008-1.jpg|thumb|left|Tomb of Vasco da Gama in the [[Jerónimos Monastery]] in Belém, Lisbon]]
[[Fileගොනුව:St-Francis-Church.jpg|thumb|right|St. Francis Church, Cochin|St. Francis CSI Church, in [[Cochin|Kochi]]. Vasco da Gama, died in Kochi in 1524 when he was on his third visit to India. His body was originally buried in this church.]]
 
In 1519 he became the first [[Count of Vidigueira]], a [[count]] [[title of nobility|title]] created by King [[Manuel I of Portugal]] on a royal decree issued in Évora in December 29, after an agreement with Dom [[Jaime, Duke of Braganza]], who cede him on payment the towns of [[Vidigueira]] and Vila dos Frades, granting Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related,<ref>Vasco Da Gama, Ernest George Ravenstein, "A journal of the first voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1497-1499", p. [[Hakluyt Society]], Issue 99 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, ISBN 81-206-1136-5</ref> thus becoming the first Portuguese count ([[earl]]) who was not born with royal blood.
The [[Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon|Monastery of the Hieronymites]] in [[Belém, Lisbon|Belém]] was erected in honour of his voyage to India.
 
== Acts of Cruelty ==
Vasco da Gama inflicted acts of cruelty upon competing traders and local inhabitants.<ref name="M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut 2006">M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications</ref><ref>Sreedhara Menon. A Survey of Kerala History (1967), D. C. Books Kottayam</ref> During his second voyage to Calicut, Gama intercepted a ship of Muslim pilgrims at [[Madayi]] travelling from Calicut to Mecca. Described by the Portuguese historian [[Gaspar Correia]] as one that is unequalled in cold- blooded cruelty, Gama looted the ship with over 400 pilgrims on board including 50 women, locked the passengers, the owner and an ambassador from Egypt and burnt them to death. They offered their wealth which 'could ransom all the Christian slaves in the [[Kingdom of Fez]] and much more' but were not spared. Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy.'<ref>Nambiar O.K, The Kunjalis- Admirals of Calicut, Bombay, 1963.</ref>
 
 
== Legacy ==
[[Fileගොනුව:Portugal 1521-1557.gif|thumb|400px|Map of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of [[John III of Portugal|John III]] (1502–1557).<!--What does the green shading mean, and what do the red dots mean?-->]]
 
Gama and his wife, [[Catarina de Ataíde]], had six sons and one daughter: Dom Francisco da Gama, 2nd [[Count of Vidigueira]]; Dom [[Estêvão da Gama (16th century)|Estevão da Gama]], 11th [[Governor]] of [[Portuguese India|India]] (1540–1542); Dom Paulo da Gama; Dom Pedro da Silva da Gama; Dom Álvaro de Ataíde da Gama, [[Captain-major|Captain]] of [[Malacca]]; Dona Isabel de Ataíde da Gama and Dom [[Cristovão da Gama]], a [[martyr]] in [[Ethiopian Empire|Ethiopia]]. His male line issue became extinct in 1747, though the title went through female line.
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[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:1524 deaths]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Portuguese explorers]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Portuguese maritime history]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Portuguese Roman Catholics]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Explorers of Asia]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Explorers of Africa]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Viceroys of Portuguese India]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Age of Discovery]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Deaths from malaria]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Infectious disease deaths in India]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:Maritime history of South Africa]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:15th-century Roman Catholics]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:History of Kerala]]
[[Categoryප්‍රවර්ගය:History of Goa]]
 
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