"ජාත්‍යන්තර අභ්‍යවකාශ මධ්‍යස්ථානය" හි සංශෝධන අතර වෙනස්කම්

සංස්කරණ සාරාංශයක් නොමැත
සුළු (robot Adding: cy:Gorsaf Ofod Ryngwladol)
 
'''ජාත්‍යන්තර අභ්‍යවකාශ මධ්‍යස්ථානය''' අභ්‍යවකාශ ආයතන පහක (5) හවුල් ව්‍යාපෘතියකි; ඒ නාසා ආයතනය (ඇමෙරිකා එකසත් ජනපදය), රුසියානු අභ්‍යවකාශ ඒජන්සිය (රුසියානු සමූහාණ්ඩුව), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ජපානය), කැනේඩියානු අභ්‍යවකාශ ඒජන්සිය (කැනඩාව) සහ යුරෝපීය අභ්‍යවකාශ ඒජන්සිය (යුරෝපය) යන ආයතන පහයි.
 
 
 
The Brazilian Space Agency (Brazil) participates through a separate contract with NASA. The Italian Space Agency similarly has separate contracts for various activities not done in the framework of ESA ISS works (where Italy also fully participates).
 
The space station is located in orbit around the Earth at an altitude of approximately 360 km (220 miles), a type of orbit usually termed low Earth orbit (The actual height varies over time by several kilometres due to atmospheric drag and reboosts [2]). It orbits Earth in a period of about 92 minutes; by June 2005 it had completed more than 37,500 orbits since launch of the Zarya module on November 20, 1998.
 
In many ways the ISS represents a merger of previously planned independent space stations: Russia's Mir 2, United States' Space Station Freedom and the planned European Columbus and Japanese Experiment Module.
 
Due to the ISS, there is a permanent human presence in space, as there have always been at least two people on board ISS since the first permanent crew entered the ISS on November 2, 2000. It is serviced primarily by the Soyuz, Progress spacecraft units and Space Shuttle. The ISS is currently still under construction with a projected completion date of 2010. At present, the station has a capacity for a crew of three. So far, all permanent crewmembers have come from the Russian or United States space programs. The ISS has however been visited by astronauts from a large number of other countries and was also the destination of the first three space tourists.
 
== ඉතිහාසය ==
[[ගොනුව:ISS June 1999.jpg|thumb|left|150px|Zarya and Node 1 in 1999]]
 
In the early 1980s, NASA planned [[Space Station Freedom]] as a counterpart to the Soviet [[Salyut]] and [[Mir]] space stations. It never left the drawing board, and with the end of the [[Soviet Union]] and the [[Cold War]] it was cancelled. The end of the [[Space race]] prompted the U.S. administration officials to start negotiations with international partners Europe, Russia, Japan and Canada in the early 1990s, in order to build a truly international space station. This project was first announced in 1993 and was called Space Station Alpha.<ref name="gao">{{cite web |url=http://archive.gao.gov/t2pbat3/151975.pdf |title=''Space Station: Impact of the Expanded Russian Role on Funding and Research |accessdate=2006-11-03 |author=GAO |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year=1994 |month=June |format=PDF |work= |publisher=GAO |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= }}</ref> It was planned to combine the proposed space stations of all participating space agencies: NASA's [[Space Station Freedom]], Russia's Mir-2 (the successor to the Mir space station, the core of which is now [[ISS Zvezda]]) and ESA's [[Columbus (ISS module)|Columbus]] that was planned to be a stand-alone spacelab.
 
Throughout the 1990s, construction delays hit the project, budget projections were heavily revised and the ISS structure was modified frequently. The ISS has been, as of today, far more expensive than originally anticipated. The ESA estimates the overall cost from the start of the project in the late 1980s to the prospective end in 2016 to be in the region of [[United States dollar|$]]130 billion ([[Euro|€]]100 billion).<ref name = "costs">{{cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 9 August 2005 | url = http://www.esa.int/esaHS/ESAQHA0VMOC_iss_0.html | title = How Much Does It Cost? | format = | work = International Space Station | publisher = European Space Agency | accessmonthday = 18 July | accessyear = 2006}}</ref>
 
The first section, the [[Zarya|Zarya Functional Cargo Block]], was put in orbit in November 1998 on a Russian [[Proton rocket]]. Two further pieces (the [[Unity Module]] and [[ISS Zvezda|Zvezda service module]]) were added before the first crew, [[Expedition 1]], was sent. [[Expedition 1]] docked to the ISS on [[November 2]], [[2000]], and consisted of U.S. [[astronaut]] [[William Shepherd]] and two Russian cosmonauts, [[Yuri Gidzenko]], and [[Sergei Krikalev]].
== කොලොම්බියා ඛේදවාචකය සහ ගොඩ නැගීම සඳහා වූ පිඹුරු පත්හි සිදුකල වෙනස් කම් ==
 
[[ගොනුව:STS-107 launch.jpg|left|thumb|150px|සිය [[STS-107|අවසන් මෙහෙයුම]] සඳහා '''[[කොලොම්බියා අභ්‍යවකාශ ශටලය]]''' ගුවන් ගතවෙයි.]]
 
=== කොලොම්බියා ඛේදවාචකය සහ ප්‍රතිවිපාක ===
After the [[Space Shuttle Columbia disaster|breakup]] of [[Space Shuttle Columbia|''Columbia'']] on [[February 1]] [[2003]], and the subsequent two and a half year suspension of the U.S. [[Space Shuttle program]], followed by problems with resuming flight operations in 2005, there was some uncertainty over the future of the ISS until 2006.
 
The Space Shuttle Program resumed flight on [[July 26]] [[2005]] with the [[STS-114]] mission of [[Space Shuttle Discovery|''Discovery'']]. This mission to the ISS was intended both to test new safety measures implemented since the Columbia disaster, and to deliver supplies to the station. Although the mission succeeded safely, it was not without risk; foam was shed by the external tank, leading NASA to announce future missions would be grounded until this issue was resolved.
 
Between the Columbia disaster and the resumption of Shuttle launches crew exchanges were carried out solely using the Russian [[Soyuz spacecraft]]. Starting with [[Expedition 7]], two-astronaut caretaker crews were launched, instead of the previous crews of three. Because the ISS had not been visited by a shuttle for an extended period, a larger than planned amount of waste accumulated, temporarily hindering station operations in 2004. However [[Progress spacecraft|Progress]] transports and the [[STS-114]] shuttle flight took care of this problem.
 
=== ගොඩ නැගීම සඳහා වූ පිඹුරු පත්හි සිදුකල වෙනස් කම් ===
[[ගොනුව:ISS_after_STS-116_(computer_rendering_of_August_2006).jpg|right|thumb|300px|Present configuration of the ISS]]
 
ISS construction is now far behind the original planned schedule for completion in 2004 or 2005. This is mainly due to the halting of all NASA Shuttle flights following the [[Space Shuttle Columbia disaster|''Columbia'' disaster]] in early 2003 (although there had been prior delays due partly to Shuttle problems, and partly to delays stemming from the Russian space agency's budget constraints). During the shuttle standdown construction of the ISS was halted and the science conducted aboard was limited due to the crew size of two.
 
As of the beginning of 2006 many changes have been made to the originally planned ISS, even before the Columbia disaster. Modules and other structures have been canceled or replaced and the number of Shuttle flights to the ISS has been reduced from previously planned numbers. Still, the newest ISS Shuttle launch manifest and the current ISS design scheme reveal that more than 80% of the hardware planned to be part of the ISS in the late 90s, is still planned to be orbited to the ISS by its scheduled completion date in 2010.
 
In March 2006 a meeting of the heads of the five participating space agencies accepted the new ISS construction schedule that plans to complete the ISS by 2010.<ref>{{cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | year = 3 March 2006 | url = http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2006/03/03/Navigation/177/205237/NASA+commits+to+Shuttle+missions+to+International+Space.html flightglobal.com | title = NASA commits to Shuttle missions to International Space Station | format = | work = International Space Station | publisher = FlightGlobal | accessmonthday = 16 September | accessyear = 2006}}</ref> A crew of six is expected to be established in 2009, after the Shuttle's next 12 construction flights following the second [[Return to Flight]] mission [[STS-121]]. Requirements for stepping up the crew size include enhanced environmental support on the ISS, a second Soyuz permanently docked on the station to function as a second 'lifeboat', more frequent Progress flights to provide double the amount of consumables, more fuel for orbit raising maneuvers, and a sufficient supply line of experimental equipment.
 
=== වත්මන් තත්වය ===
After the successful completion of two Return to Flight missions, ISS assembly resumed with the launch of [[STS-115]] on [[September 9]], [[2006]]. On [[December 9]], [[2006]] [[STS-116]] lifted off for the second Space Shuttle assembly mission since the Columbia disaster. It took with it the first Swedish astronaut, [[Christer Fuglesang]]. EVAs conducted by Fuglesang and other members of the STS-116 crew upgraded the electrical system of the space station. Station power is now supplied for the first time from solar arrays attached to the permanent truss structure.
 
[[ප්‍රවර්ගය:ජාත්‍යන්තර අභ්‍යවකාශ මධ්‍යස්ථානය]]

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