Chiang Kai-shek
Official photo of President Chiang Kai-shek in 1948
Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China
In office
October 10, 1928 – December 15, 1931
PremierTan Yankai
Soong Tse-ven
Preceded byV. K. Wellington Koo (Acting)
Succeeded byLin Sen
In office
August 1, 1943 – May 20, 1948
Acting until October 10, 1943
PremierSoong Tse-ven
Vice ChairmanSun Fo
Preceded byLin Sen
Succeeded byHimself (as President of the Republic of China)
Chairman of the National Military Council
In office
December 15, 1931 – May 31, 1946
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Republic of China
In office
May 20, 1948 – January 21, 1949
PremierChang Chun
Wong Wen-hao
Sun Fo
Vice PresidentLi Zongren
Preceded byHimself (as Chairman of the National Government of China)
Succeeded byLi Zongren (Acting)
In office
March 1, 1950 – April 5, 1975
PremierYen Hsi-shan
Chen Cheng
Yu Hung-Chun
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Chiang Ching-kuo
Vice PresidentLi Zongren
Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Preceded byLi Zongren (Acting)
Succeeded byYen Chia-kan
Premier of the Republic of China
In office
December 4, 1930 – December 15, 1931
Preceded bySoong Tse-ven
Succeeded byChen Mingshu
In office
December 9, 1935 – January 1, 1938
PresidentLin Sen
Preceded byWang Jingwei
Succeeded byHsiang-hsi Kung
In office
November 20, 1939 – May 31, 1945
PresidentLin Sen
Preceded byHsiang-hsi Kung
Succeeded bySoong Tse-ven
In office
March 1, 1947 – April 18, 1947
Preceded bySoong Tse-ven
Succeeded byChang Chun
1st, 3rd Director-General of the Kuomintang
In office
March 29, 1938 – April 5, 1975
Preceded byHu Hanmin
Succeeded byChiang Ching-kuo (as Chairman of the Kuomintang)
Personal details
උපතඔක්තෝම්බර් 31, 1887(1887-10-31)
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing China
මරණයApril 5, 1975(1975-04-05) (වයස 87)
Taipei, Taiwan
තැන්පත් කල ස්ථානයCihu Mausoleum, Taoyuan, Taiwan
ජාතිකත්වයRepublic of China
දේශපාලන පක්ෂයKuomintang
කලත්‍රයා(යන්)Mao Fumei
Yao Yecheng
Chen Jieru
Soong Mei-ling
දරුවන්Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Wei-kuo (adopted)
උගත් ශාස්ත්‍රාලයBaoding Military Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Academy Preparatory School
සම්මානOrder of National Glory, Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, 1st class Order of the Sacred Tripod, Legion of Merit
හමුදා සේවය
අපනාමය(න්)"Generalissimo"or "Red General"[1]
සේවය/ශාඛාවRepublic of China Army
සේවා වසර1911–1975
අනුස්ථීතියGeneral Special Class (特级上将)
යුද්ධ/සටන්Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, Sino-Tibetan War, Kumul Rebellion, Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang, Chinese Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950–1958)
චිං කායි-ෂෙක්
Chiang Kai-shek (Chinese characters).svg
"Chiang Kai-shek" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන
සරල චීන අක්ෂර
register name
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන
සරල චීන අක්ෂර
milk name
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන
සරල චීන අක්ෂර
school name
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන
සරල චීන අක්ෂර
adopted name
සම්ප්‍රදායික චීන
සරල චීන අක්ෂර
මෙය චීන නාමයකි; පවුල් නාමය වන්නේ Chiang ය.

චිං කායි-ෂෙක් (චීන: 蔣介石; 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng (චීන: 蔣中正), was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China.

Chiang – who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975 – was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT following the Canton Coup in early 1926. Having neutralized the party's left wing, Chiang then led Sun's long-postponed Northern Expedition, conquering or reaching accommodations with China's many warlords.[3]

From 1928 to 1948, Chiang served as chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (ROC). Chiang was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting both western democracy and Sun's nationalist democratic socialism in favour of an authoritarian government.[තහවුරු කරන්න] Unable to maintain Sun's good relations with the communists, Chiang purged them in a massacre at Shanghai and repression of uprisings at Kwangtung and elsewhere.

At the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which later became the Chinese theater of World War II, Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang and obliged him to establish a Second United Front with the communists. After the defeat of the Japanese, the American-sponsored Marshall Mission, an attempt to negotiate a coalition government, failed in 1946. The Chinese Civil War resumed, with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led by Mao Zedong defeating the Nationalists and declaring the People's Republic of China in 1949. Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics in a period known as the "White Terror". After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled Taiwan securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year short of Mao's death.[4]

Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure: supporters credit him with playing a major part in the Allied victory of the Second World War; detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian autocracy who suppressed and purged opponents and critics and arbitrarily incarcerated those he deemed as opposing to the Kuomintang among others.

  1. Pakula, Hannah (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. පි. 346. ISBN 1-4391-4893-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010. 
  2. Jay Taylor. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009) p. 2.
  3. Zarrow, Peter Gue (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. පිටු 230–231. 
  4. Will of Chiang Kai-shek at Wikisource.
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