|Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China|
October 10, 1928 – December 15, 1931
|පූර්වප්රාප්තිකයා||V. K. Wellington Koo (Acting)|
August 1, 1943 – May 20, 1948
Acting until October 10, 1943
|Vice Chairman||Sun Fo|
|අනුප්රාප්තිකයා||Himself (as President of the Republic of China)|
|Chairman of the National Military Council|
December 15, 1931 – May 31, 1946
|President of the Republic of China|
May 20, 1948 – January 21, 1949
|Vice President||Li Zongren|
|පූර්වප්රාප්තිකයා||Himself (as Chairman of the National Government of China)|
|අනුප්රාප්තිකයා||Li Zongren (Acting)|
March 1, 1950 – April 5, 1975
|Vice President||Li Zongren|
|පූර්වප්රාප්තිකයා||Li Zongren (Acting)|
|Premier of the Republic of China|
December 4, 1930 – December 15, 1931
December 9, 1935 – January 1, 1938
November 20, 1939 – May 31, 1945
March 1, 1947 – April 18, 1947
|1st, 3rd Director-General of the Kuomintang|
March 29, 1938 – April 5, 1975
|අනුප්රාප්තිකයා||Chiang Ching-kuo (as Chairman of the Kuomintang)|
|උපත||ඔක්තෝබර් 31, 1887|
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing China
|Died||April 5, 1975 (වයස 87)|
|Resting place||Cihu Mausoleum, Taoyuan, Taiwan|
|Nationality||Republic of China|
Chiang Wei-kuo (adopted)
|උගත් ශාස්ත්රාලය||Baoding Military Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Academy Preparatory School|
|Awards||Order of National Glory, Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, 1st class Order of the Sacred Tripod, Legion of Merit|
|අපනාමය||"Generalissimo"or "Red General"|
|ඛණ්ඩය/සේවය||Republic of China Army|
|සේවා කාල සීමාව||1911–1975|
|නිලය||General Special Class (特级上将)|
|සටන්/යුද්ධ||Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, Sino-Tibetan War, Kumul Rebellion, Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang, Chinese Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Kuomintang Islamic Insurgency in China (1950–1958)|
- මෙය චීන නාමයකි; පවුල් නාමය වන්නේ Chiang ය.
චිං කායි-ෂෙක් (චීන: 蔣介石; 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng (චීන: 蔣中正), was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China.
Chiang – who led the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975 – was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT following the Canton Coup in early 1926. Having neutralized the party's left wing, Chiang then led Sun's long-postponed Northern Expedition, conquering or reaching accommodations with China's many warlords.
From 1928 to 1948, Chiang served as chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (ROC). Chiang was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting both western democracy and Sun's nationalist democratic socialism in favour of an authoritarian government.[තහවුරු කරන්න] Unable to maintain Sun's good relations with the communists, Chiang purged them in a massacre at Shanghai and repression of uprisings at Kwangtung and elsewhere.
At the onset of the Second Sino-Japanese War, which later became the Chinese theater of World War II, Zhang Xueliang kidnapped Chiang and obliged him to establish a Second United Front with the communists. After the defeat of the Japanese, the American-sponsored Marshall Mission, an attempt to negotiate a coalition government, failed in 1946. The Chinese Civil War resumed, with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led by Mao Zedong defeating the Nationalists and declaring the People's Republic of China in 1949. Chiang's government and army retreated to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted critics in a period known as the "White Terror". After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled Taiwan securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975, just one year short of Mao's death.
Like Mao, Chiang is regarded as a controversial figure: supporters credit him with playing a major part in the Allied victory of the Second World War; detractors and critics denounce him as a dictator at the front of an authoritarian autocracy who suppressed and purged opponents and critics and arbitrarily incarcerated those he deemed as opposing to the Kuomintang among others.
- ↑ Pakula, Hannah (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon and Schuster. p. 346. ISBN 1-4391-4893-7. සම්ප්රවේශය June 28, 2010.
- ↑ Jay Taylor. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Struggle for Modern China. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009) p. 2.
- ↑ Zarrow, Peter Gue (2005). China in War and Revolution, 1895–1949. pp. 230–231.
- ↑ Will of Chiang Kai-shek at Wikisource.